About this paper

Appears in:
Pages: 324-332
Publication year: 2013
ISBN: 978-84-616-2661-8
ISSN: 2340-1079

Conference name: 7th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
Dates: 4-5 March, 2013
Location: Valencia, Spain

ONLINE CONTENT LOCALIZATION FOR BLENDED LEARNING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE STUDY USING KHAN’S ACADEMY

I. Zualkernan1, A. Karim2

1American University of Sharjah (UNITED ARAB EMIRATES)
2Taletaleem (PAKISTAN)
Online Content Localization for Blended Learning in Developing Countries: A Case Study Using Khan’s Academy

Problems in localizing online learning content across cultures are well recognized [1]. A number of pedagogical models for designing culturally congruent online content have also been proposed (e.g., [2], [3]). Learning styles of students can also vary across cultures [4]. In blended learning situations [5], teaching styles, roles, and quality teachers become relevant as well. Authenticity [6] of content is also a key concern; using “bran muffins” to explain counting to primary school children carries little meaning to most children in rural Africa. Another important issue is content alignment with the local curriculum. How students view assessments also changes across cultures [7]; this is relevant for localization of formative assessments. This paper presents uses Khan’s Academy [8], a repository of free learning videos. This case study focuses on localizing the Khan’s academy content for grade IV and V mathematics. A total of 48 relevant videos were found on Khan’s Academy. Despite being translated into the local language, a number of issues related to the problem difficulty, authenticity, language translation, use of technical terms, and audio and color issues were identified. One major issue was conformance to the local curriculum. While Khan’s Academy’s content tries to conform to the Common Core Mathematics Curriculum [9], 80 additional videos were created to bridge the curricular gap. In addition, formative assessments on Khan’s academy were also analyzed for consistency with, and validated against an assessment instrument based on item response theory [10]. Finally, current teaching styles of teachers from the target population were compared with the pedagogy implicit in these online materials. This paper summarizes experiences gained from this localization effort, and presents a prescriptive framework for building such content that can potentially minimize the localization effort required, especially as it pertains to developing countries.

References
[1] Edmundson, A., Globalized e-learning Cultural Challenges, Information Science Publishing, 2007.
[2] Tapanes, M. A., Revision and Validation of a Culturally-Adapted Online Instructional Module Using Edmundson's CAP Model: A DBR Study, Dissertation, University of South Florida, 2011.
[3] Young, P. A., “The culture based model: constructing a model of culture,” Educational Technology & Society, 11(2), 2008, 107-112.
[4] Zualkernan, I. A., Allert, J. and Qadah, G., “Learning Styles of Computer Programming Students: A Middle-Eastern and American Comparison,” IEEE Transactions on Education, 49(4), 2006, 443-450.
[5] Larson, R. C., and Murray, M. E. (2008). Open educational resources for blended learning in high schools: Overcoming impediments in developing countries.Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 12(1), 2008, 85-103.
[6] Brown, J. S., Collins, A., Duguid,P., “Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning,” Educational Researcher, 18, 1989, 32-42.
[7] Liu, Y., “Designing Quality Online Education to Promote Cross-Cultural Understanding” in Globalized e-learning Cultural Challenges. Information Science Publishing, 2007, 35-59.
[8] http://www.khanacademy.org/
[9] http://www.corestandards.org/
[10] Wainer, H., Computerized Adaptive Testing: A Primer, Lawrence-Erlbaum and Associates, New Jersey, 2000.
@InProceedings{ZUALKERNAN2013ONL,
author = {Zualkernan, I. and Karim, A.},
title = {ONLINE CONTENT LOCALIZATION FOR BLENDED LEARNING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE STUDY USING KHAN’S ACADEMY},
series = {7th International Technology, Education and Development Conference},
booktitle = {INTED2013 Proceedings},
isbn = {978-84-616-2661-8},
issn = {2340-1079},
publisher = {IATED},
location = {Valencia, Spain},
month = {4-5 March, 2013},
year = {2013},
pages = {324-332}}
TY - CONF
AU - I. Zualkernan AU - A. Karim
TI - ONLINE CONTENT LOCALIZATION FOR BLENDED LEARNING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE STUDY USING KHAN’S ACADEMY
SN - 978-84-616-2661-8/2340-1079
PY - 2013
Y1 - 4-5 March, 2013
CI - Valencia, Spain
JO - 7th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
JA - INTED2013 Proceedings
SP - 324
EP - 332
ER -
I. Zualkernan, A. Karim (2013) ONLINE CONTENT LOCALIZATION FOR BLENDED LEARNING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE STUDY USING KHAN’S ACADEMY, INTED2013 Proceedings, pp. 324-332.
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