About this paper

Appears in:
Pages: 5360-5368
Publication year: 2018
ISBN: 978-84-09-05948-5
ISSN: 2340-1095
doi: 10.21125/iceri.2018.2238

Conference name: 11th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
Dates: 12-14 November, 2018
Location: Seville, Spain


W. Tuszyńska-Bogucka1, M. Borys2, M. Dzieńkowski2, B. Kwiatkowski2, W. Kocki2, J. Pełka3, J. Bogucki4

1University of Economics and Innovations of Lublin (POLAND)
2Lublin University of Technology (POLAND)
3Addiction Treatment Center of Lublin (POLAND)
4Medical University of Lublin (POLAND)
Today, the role of functional programming of space, especially in terms of proxemics, is emphasised in most papers. There is, however, a shortage of data from empirical studies to support the connection between the nature of space and the specific emotional and cognitive responses evoked by it, as measured in an objective manner. This would appear to be a precondition for the effective application of such knowledge in practice if we want design to support and optimise functions of the architectural environment.

In connection with the expressed need to base the functional analysis of learning space on practical experimental and quasi-experimental methods, the project was based on the concept of using an eye-tracking device. It was employed to study the strength of cognitive responses, as measured by the average time and number of fixations, and emotional responses, as measured by the reaction of the eye pupil, supplemented by a self-description of the emotional state in response to the visualisations of two classroom arrangements involving three variants. The 1st interior group was based on a visualisation of a standard interior, which clearly defines its function. In addition to the criterion of colour (grayscale, bright and subdued colours), the modifications affected the arrangement of the interior and the placement of the furniture. The 2nd group comprised interiors in a grayscale adaptation of the same colours, and with the light coming from the left, and a different location for the blackboard, with the classic arrangement of a learning space. The only modification involved a different location for the blackboard.
The study group was 161 volunteers from 18 to 25 years of age, including 78 men and 84 women (Mm=21.10, SDm=1.84; Mw=21.05, SDw=1.81). The self-description of the emotional state focused on positive stimulation, and a sense of safety and comfort, as the question was whether the presented interior was (1) attractive-unattractive; (2) friendly-unfriendly; (3) relaxing-stressful.

The results show that the varying spatial arrangements presented in the interior visualisations provoked different emotional responses. This was confirmed by the parameters of the pupil reaction and the number of fixations, as measured by the eye-tracking device. The interior with subdued colours and a loose arrangement of desks and chairs statistically met with the most positive emotional response and the worst results were observed for the interior with the same proportions, but painted in bright and contrasting colours, every second row of desks being moved in relation to each other. Statistically significant differences in the number of fixations were also found – this particular interior caused a larger number of fixations when compared to the other interiors, both in grayscale and in bright colours. The 2nd group grayscale interiors with small differences in arrangement did not cause statistically significant differences in the emotional response.

This could mean the development of new technologies has provided us with analytical tools which might allow evidence-based design to become a reality. Such studies of learning space involving virtual models will assist decision-makers in identifying the aspects which help children to learn better, and teachers to optimise their work. New research models, such as the one presented here, appear to be a promising practical application for diagnostic solutions.
author = {Tuszyńska-Bogucka, W. and Borys, M. and Dzieńkowski, M. and Kwiatkowski, B. and Kocki, W. and Pełka, J. and Bogucki, J.},
series = {11th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation},
booktitle = {ICERI2018 Proceedings},
isbn = {978-84-09-05948-5},
issn = {2340-1095},
doi = {10.21125/iceri.2018.2238},
url = {https://dx.doi.org/10.21125/iceri.2018.2238},
publisher = {IATED},
location = {Seville, Spain},
month = {12-14 November, 2018},
year = {2018},
pages = {5360-5368}}
AU - W. Tuszyńska-Bogucka AU - M. Borys AU - M. Dzieńkowski AU - B. Kwiatkowski AU - W. Kocki AU - J. Pełka AU - J. Bogucki
SN - 978-84-09-05948-5/2340-1095
DO - 10.21125/iceri.2018.2238
PY - 2018
Y1 - 12-14 November, 2018
CI - Seville, Spain
JO - 11th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
JA - ICERI2018 Proceedings
SP - 5360
EP - 5368
ER -
W. Tuszyńska-Bogucka, M. Borys, M. Dzieńkowski, B. Kwiatkowski, W. Kocki, J. Pełka, J. Bogucki (2018) USE OF EYE TRACKING FOR DESIGNING OF LEARNING SPACES, ICERI2018 Proceedings, pp. 5360-5368.