POTENTIAL OF AUGMENTED REALITY IN SCIENCES EDUCATION A LITERATURE REVIEW
Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences (NORWAY)
Fewer and fewer students in Europe choose STEM education, while in today's job market have a growing need for people with such education. There are many reasons for this situation, but one important factor is that many students perceive school science as difficult. In science, there are many complex and abstract concepts to be learned, which puts high demands on students' abstraction capability. Augmented reality (AR) is a technology that show potential in regard to help students with among others things abstraction of science concepts.
AR expand / modify the user's perception of reality. Visual extension of reality is probably the best known, but it may also be in other forms such as sound.
Azuma et al. (2001) definition of AR which are based on three characteristics:
- The combination of real and virtual objects in a real environment
- Runs interactively and in real time
- Compiles real and virtual objects with each other
Technology that can delivered AR content exists in many formats e.g. head worn devices, handheld devices and projection screens. Meta, Microsoft Hololens and Magic Leap's is three of a growing number of companies that currently develops advanced head worn devices for AR. While head worn AR is still too expensive for the classroom, handheld devices like smartphones and tablets already available in many classrooms and therefore easy to use.
The purpose of this article is to shed light on potential AR have in science education as presented in publications about AR for education in general and science education in particular.
Using visualization of models that are abstract and complex sciences concept, can make these concepts perceived less abstract and complex and thus help students(Gilbert, 2005). Visualization using AR in science can be done in many ways. AR can visualize in 3D, visualize the invisible, visualize alternative and multiple perspectives(Munnerley et al., 2012; Radu, 2014; Wu, Lee, Chang, & Liang, 2013). Situated learning has long been recognized as a good learning principle. Within AR game based AR learning mentioned as an example of situated learning. Using mobile phones in the AR game in which students play Environmental Detectives the game using GPS that provide students with information about where they are and let them find traces of environmental crimes(Rosenbaum, Klopfer, & Perry, 2007. Such situated learning arena can engage students in a deeper way than if they just read about environmental crime. The AR-sci framework for planning, development and evaluation of AR resources for science education is one of several models that are presented in this article.