CAN THEORY COURSES BE TOO HEAVY TO FLIP OR CAN FLIPPING MAKE THEORY FUN?
The flipped model of learning is a form of blended learning which integrates the use of technology such as learning object repositories, lecture capture technology, vodcasts, Ipadio, digital imaging, streaming audio, and interactive case simulations to leverage the learning in a classroom, so an instructor can spend more time interacting with students instead of lecturing. The flipped model of learning has transformed teaching practice by changing traditional roles and increasing interaction between the instructor and students during class. In the flipped classroom, the blended learning strategies transfer the responsibility and ownership of learning from the teacher to the students through participation in active learning activities (Bergmann & Sams, 2012). The empirical evidence for active learning, defined as any instructional method that engages students in the learning process, is extensive (Pierce & Fox, 2012). New developments in cognitive science challenge traditional notions of teaching, learning and retention. Cognitive scientists have determined that people’s short-term memory is very limited and can only process so much information at once (Moravec, Aguilar-Roca, and O’Dowd, 2010). The vast amount of information presented in a typical lecture comes at students too fast and is quickly forgotten. Designing experiences that encourage students to transform into active learners rather than passive repositories of information is essential (Smith, Wood, Krauter, & Knight, 2011). In the flipped instructional model, lectures occur outside of the classroom through teaching strategies like learning object repositories, lecture capture technology, vodcasts, digital imaging, streaming audio and video lectures, and interactive case simulations. In class time is then freed up to discuss complex topics and work with students either individually or in small groups, increased in-class student problem solving with immediate feedback occurs, and adaption of content and class discussion to meet current level of students learning is possible (Ferreri, Shanna, & O’Connor, 2013). The goal of this project was to assess the impact of the flipped classroom instructional model on occupational therapy student learning outcomes and perceptions in a traditional theory course. The pre and post competency and critical thinking outcomes demonstrated increased retention and application of theoretical constructs in flipped classroom students as compared to those students who received instruction in the traditional classroom format.
Bergmann J, Sams A. (2012). Flip Your Classroom. Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day. International Society for Technology in Education, Washington, DC.
Richard Pierce, & R., Fox, J. (2012). Vodcasts and active-learning exercises in a “flipped classroom” model of a renal pharmacotherapy module. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76 (10).
Ferreri S., Shanna K., O’Connor P. (2013). Redesign of a Large Lecture Course into a small-group learning course. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 77 (1).
Moravec M, Williams A, Aguilar-Roca N, O’Dowd DK. (2010). Learn before lecture: a strategy that improves learning outcomes in a large introductory biology class. CBE Life Sci Educ, 9(4):473-481.
Smith MK, Wood WB, Krauter K, Knight JK. (2011). Combining peer discussion with instructor explanation increases student learning from in-class concept questions. CBE Life Sci Educ.10(1): 55-63.