1 Escola de Psicologia da Universidade do Minho (PORTUGAL)
2 Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto (PORTUGAL)
3 Universidade Pedagógica de Maputo (MOZAMBIQUE)
About this paper:
Appears in: ICERI2010 Proceedings
Publication year: 2010
Pages: 3757-3764
ISBN: 978-84-614-2439-9
ISSN: 2340-1095
Conference name: 3rd International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
Dates: 15-17 November, 2010
Location: Madrid, Spain
The social-cognitive model of well-being (Lent, 2004) has become an important framework to study satisfaction and adjustment in specific life contexts and in overall life (Betz, 2008; Lent, 2005; Lent, Taveira, Sheu & Singler, 2008). Taking into consideration this integrative perspective, this paper aims to understand and compare the process of academic satisfaction in European and Mozambican Portuguese speaking college students, and to draw implications for psycho educational interventions and research in those contexts. We present and discuss the results of the assessment of self-efficacy, goal progress, environmental supports, academic adjustment, positive affect and overall life satisfaction dimensions (AAQ; Academic Adjustment Questionnaire, Lent, 2004;Taveira & Lent, 2004), conducted with 305 students attending one public university and one public polytechnic institute in Portugal, and with 465 students attending one public university in Mozambique.
A first study of the instrument in Portugal with higher education students (Lent, Taveira, Sheu & Singley, 2009) revealed values of internal consistency for the seven scales ranging between 0,75 and 0,88 (M =0, 84, SD = 5,00). The range of internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach alpha) were between 0,52 and 0,78 (M =0,67, SD = 9,5) for the European Portuguese sample, and between 0,65 and 0,83 (M =0,75, SD = 5,4) for the African Mozambican sample.
Moreover, in the Portuguese sample, positive correlations were registered between the dimensions of academic adjustment, positive affect and satisfaction with life in general. In the Mozambican sample, in turn, in general moderate and positive correlations were obtained, statistically significant between all the dimensions of the academic adjustment that where evaluated.
An analysis of the mean tells us that, in both samples, students tend to have moderate values on the dimensions of the academic adjustment model. The comparison test of means reveals significant differences between the two countries in the overall dimensions of academic adjustment, with the exception of the scale factors to stimulate the academic adjustment. Specifically, Portugal obtains the highest degree of confidence in himself, in the overall adjustment, and affective dimensions in satisfaction with life. In Mozambique there are higher results on scales of a degree of confidence to face barriers and progress in the objectives.
These analysis highlights the results obtained in the scale concerning the support, which indicates that students in both countries perceive a support system and similar incentives, although the level of development of higher education in these two countries show a little gap. This is a dimension that is directly and indirectly correlated with academic adjustment, in both samples. It also appears to show the importance of cultural and even historical factors in how students construct and adapt their careers during their passage through Higher Education.
Higher education, academic adjustment, social-cognitive career theory.