THE PECULIARITIES OF PROSODY OF YOUNG CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES IN THE ACQUIREMENT OF SPEECH

E.V. Sheremetyeva1, E.A. Spirina1, I. Menendez Pidal2

1Pedagogical Institute. Chelyabinski University (RUSSIAN FEDERATION)
2Universidad Politecnica de Madrdi (SPAIN)
Objectives:
Acquirement of speech by a child is associated with the process of learning the prosodic system of the language. The prosody belongs to the basic characteristics of linguistic means of communication and appears at an earlier stage of speech development in pre speech vocalizations. We assume that such prosodic components of development of speech as timbre, intonation, pace and rhythms are generated early in the origin and have become the main means of communication of the young children. This work shows the methods of diagnosis of the condition of the prosodic components of speech development and how they were selected by this team in accordance with the key pattern of acquirement of all means of communication; from perception to reproduction.

Methodology:
We utilized the test task of A. G. Gogoberidze and N. A. Vetlugina, B. M. Teplova, E. V. Sheremetyeva. In the experimental research were involved 65 children from 1 year 10 months to 3 years by using specific tasks of development. During the performing tasks, 40% of children showed an optimal level of development of tonal hearing, indicating the presence of certain reserve of emotional intonation, vocalized voice modulations, allowing not only to distinguish but also to reproduce intonation. However, 40 % of children with disabilities in acquirement of speech with the optimal level of formation of pitch hearing only 70% from them could control their own voice modulations. And 30% of children could imitate intonation of the adult, but with independent communication they did not use intonation means. Moreover, 24% of children had not involved into the music environment. In these children, we noted the predominance of monosyllabic words in the vocabulary. Thus, 58% of children who were involved in music used their locomotive apparatus in some time. Finally, 12% of children who were involved into the music much later; their movements were not rhythmic but monotonous. In the vocabulary of the last two groups of children dominated two-syllable words with the accent on the first syllable.

Conclusion:
Following this methodology, it has showed that in the earliest process of speech development of the young child appears the tone hearing of speech, then pitch hearing as the perception of emotional intonation or adult sing. Also, these data can be used to organize the voice making of speech, which is addressed to the child.