EDUCATION MANAGEMENT PROCESS IN EMERGING COUNTRIES
1 University of Naples 'L'Orientale' (ITALY)
2 University Unitelma Sapienza of Rome (ITALY)
About this paper:
Conference name: 12th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
Dates: 5-7 March, 2018
Location: Valencia, Spain
Abstract:‘Education is the key to unlock the golden door of freedom.’
George Washington Carver
We believe that education should have a primary goal: to train people being aware and free.
As most of the literature demonstrates, social and economic factors are the main drivers of development: data show us that where education is poor, the basic health standards are not met, population lives on a low income, development is slow and unequal. We started our research by analyzing the human development in Asia (India, Philippine, Myanmar) and in Africa (South Africa, Ethiopia and Benin), with a particular focus on the development of education. We analyzed the performance of each of the six countries in the field of education by using indicators such as mean years of schooling and government expenditure in education. Then, we carried on an analysis of the education development actors (Education Development Matrix Actors) and the education development programs. This analysis showed us that the effectiveness of the individual teaching method is strongly influenced by cultural, social, religious and economic factors. The same education system may be perfect in one area and totally unusable in another area. Therefore, the attention must be shifted from the educational method to the education process.
The need for managing the process of education proves to be as the very core of the elaboration of our model. The model is based on the hybridization of different approaches (economic, management, logic framework approach, ..) and uses a two-way approach. It is also divided into three phases that are temporally differentiated and highlights as the strategic analysis is a pillar of management process. These three phases represent three fundamental steps, namely: the identification of the problems, the identification of the solutions and the planning, the implementation of peculiar (or standard) education system.
In conclusion, it is clear from our work that the prospect of building a country's education system needs to be largely modified. Getting started from the awareness of information, analyzing those coming directly from the territory, and considering the real issues is certainly more complex and more expensive than borrowing a Western-inspired model. Choose to achieve results that go beyond the UN literacy rates set in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), but that may be more effective in each specific area (always considering the ultimate goal of building a population that is aware and free), is a countertrend.
Designing an education model that tends to deliverable and evaluable results shows a great attention to the real functioning of the system and not only to the approval of the international community, which is also crucial for developing countries. The in-depth analysis of the peculiarities, the problems emerging from the territory, the possible solutions in the short, medium and long term, as well as the design of a strategic path for the achievement of the objectives and the commitment of human and economic resources requires: a consistent motivation; the vision of education as a primary element of every balanced and sustainable development process such as the Overall Development; the political foresight to wait for many years for the results and the sincere search for change because, as Nelson Mandela said, 'Education is the most powerful weapon that can be used to change the world'.
Keywords: Education Management Process, Development, Macro Management, Education in emerging countries.