OVERALL DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT MODEL: A NEW APPROACH FOR EMERGING COUNTRIES COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SIX COUNTRIES ON TWO CONTINENTS
University Unitelma Sapienza of Rome (ITALY)
About this paper:
Conference name: 11th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
Dates: 6-8 March, 2017
Location: Valencia, Spain
The principal questions of this paper are: What does a country need for its own development? Which elements are absolutely unavoidable to allow a country’s balanced and sustainable development? What could be a method which can be used so that each country can formulate its own development strategy?
The analysis is carried out through a hybrid methodology consisting of:
a. On Desk Analysis of bibliography;
b. Analysis of development strategic plans of Africa - South Africa, Ethiopia, Benin - and Asia - India, Philippines, Myanmar;
c. Interviews (about 100) with significant members of UN, UNDP, International NGOs, Universities and Governments.
As most of the literature shows, social and economic factors are the main reasons of development (or lack of development) of a country: the scarcity of education, the absence of basic health standards, a low income population are the reasons of a vicious cycle of poverty that can be stopped by facing the poverty dimensions in a long term perspective.
In our article, we firstly carried on an analysis of the development actors. Then, we analyzed many development plan implemented in India, Philippine, Myanmar and in South Africa, Ethiopia and Benin, specially the cultural and social ones. These steps allowed us to introduce the Overall Development Management Model, the Macro Management Strategic Model for the development of the weak areas. The characteristics of the Overall Development Management Model are then given by: the consideration of human development as a whole; hybridization of different approaches; the division into three phases temporally differentiated (Development Lifecycle); a two-way approach, Top Down and Bottom Up; the strategic planning based on the use of instruments from different systems of economic and social science; the decreasing of the dependence between national and international public actors (Development Matrix Actors), that characterizes the implementation of national autonomy; the peculiar structure of the development plans; the involvement of the population; and the need for countries to define their own unique development process.
Indeed, the key factors to ensure that the emerging countries may be able to manage their growth process is the spread of expertise: material resources and foreign assets must be used for the creation of an independent development path, not a welfare state dependent on foreign aid.
Social and economic development, that is the basis of a sustainable development, must be founded on the culture of a country, its traditions, its religion, using these characteristics in order to find a very peculiar development path.
The mistakes made in the past related to the assumption that a development model was universal, applicable to all contexts, can no longer be reproduced. We provide a method which can help each country to formulate its own development strategy. This can be done by introducing a hybridized methodology between economics and management that uses tools that make the approaches synergistic with traditional Project Management, the Logic Framework Approach and the Result Based Management, so as to allow each country to plan and manage their own development process: An Overall Development Management Model. The Overall Development Management Model, therefore, helps a country manager to achieve its balanced, sustainable and free development, choosing like a tree the direction of its path.
Keywords: Human development, development model, emerging countries, strategy.