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COMMUNICATION IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: FROM THE ONE-ALL MODEL TO THE ALL-ALL MODEL

E. Santana Lisbôa, C. Pereira Coutinho

University of Minho (PORTUGAL)
Communication has always been part of the social life of human beings bringing an entire historical period of their needs, desires and aspirations, contributing to the emergence of several means that can satisfy the needs of a determined historical moment.
According to Sartori (2004), it has been studied as a social process from ancient Greece. The author also emphasizes that the communication model composed by the triad sender-message-receiver due to Aristotle's, where communication was seen as a one-all process.
With the passage of time, we witnessed some discoveries that actually facilitated the process of communication between people. We refer the invention of writing and the means of mass communication.
According to Lemos (2002), mass communication provides information from an information center, thus contributing to the running to concentrate on the model "one for all", that is a strategy to ensure the hegemony of power over what is broadcast or delivered.
With the advent of the Internet and digital technologies, different ways to make communication arise, since the overall extension that communication can achieve, it helps many users to connect to, providing a multifaceted model of information flows in a "all-all” model.
On the other hand, Levy (1999), believes that the present moment comes from steps that have evolved over time. The first step is defined as closed societies, with marked characteristic of orality, in which man tried to interact with their peers through gestures and their own voice.
The second step can be defined as a stage of civilized society, imperialist, which had its exponential with the use of writing in which man had a higher power of abstraction (Silva, 1998).
The third period, called the mass communication, has its benchmark when techniques that allowed the recording of sounds and images emerged; contributing significantly to the communication had a greater range. Communication, that was once a technical mean of reproduction, now in this period becomes industries, since they have an exclusive language of its own.
And finally we have the last step which is called cyber culture, that, according to Levy can be termed as “the moment when our species, by economic globalization, the consolidation of networks of communication and transport, tends to form a single global community, even if that community is - and how! - uneven and conflicting” (1999).
Thus, over time and also with the changing socio-political and cultural contexts, different theories of communication have emerged, actually changing this model that we can call the classical model, in other words, that communication we can say it’s Aristotle legacy preached the message sent from "one to many", possible through the dissemination of printed media or even broadcaster, television. With the advent of the Internet and digital technologies a new model of communication is proposed, in which the slogan becomes "all for all" without having a kind of hierarchy.
Therefore, in this communication we present and discuss the theories of communication that enable the understanding of the various ways of communication that can occur in virtual environments.