CHALLENGES FOR THE EU-COUNTRIES LABOUR MARKET POLICIES IN THE ASPECT OF THE EU GREEN JOBS POLICY
Cracow University of Economics (POLAND)
In accordance with the definition: “environmental protection consists of activities to measure, prevent, limit, minimize, or correct environmental damage to water, air, and soil, as well as problems related to waste, noise, and ecosystems. This includes activities, cleaner technologies, products, and services that reduce environmental risk and minimize pollution and resource use” [„Green Jobs. Towards decent work in a sustainable, low-carbonated world”, UNEP, September 2008, p. 35].
From a broad conceptual perspective, employment will be affected in at least four ways as the economy is oriented toward greater sustainability [Green Jobs. Towards…, p. 43].
• first, in some cases, additional jobs will be created - as in the manufacturing of pollution control devices added to existing production equipment,
• second, some employment will be substituted – as, for example, in shifting from fossil fuels to renewables,
• third, certain jobs may be eliminated without direct replacement,
• fourth, it would appear that many existing jobs will simply be redefined as day-to-day skill sets, work methods, and profiles are greened.
The important role is played by estimation of forecasted profits and costs of changes resulted from the development of ecological and liquidation of „anti-ecological” industry’s branches in the EU-24 countries. From the one side, ecological policy cause to create new workplaces and protection of existing workplaces, so far. However, from the second side, it would cause occurrence of the negative results for the economy, like for example: increase of competitiveness of the industry , reducing of the demand).
„Green employment” will be generated by development of technologies and creation into modern industries at least (for example: wind power plants, bio-fuels, biomasses, recycling), as well as the transformation of the traditional industry’s branches towards pro-ecological solutions (building, transport, agriculture, fisheries).
The important issue is the problem of indication the effective mechanisms and ways of pro-ecological financing development and employment regarding to economic crisis and occurring problem in public finance of EU-24 countries. There will be used the conception of fiscal federalism regarding to expenditures for protection of the environment.
The problem of structural adjustments of labour market regarding to changeable demand and supply will be analyze, too. The conception, which allows to define lead markets will be very helpful.
The conducted researches also require using the quantitative methods, such like: the Clark’s coefficient of divergention, distance of Euklides, angle measure, Ward’s method of objects’ grouping and method based on the analysis of flows between sources on the labour markets in EU-24 countries. In the final part of the paper the strong recommendations for labour markets' policy in analysed countries as welll as applicable scenarios will be formulated.