POVERTY ERADICATION THROUGH ‘PRO-POOR TOURISM’ (PPT) APPROACH AMONG ORANG ASLI COMMUNITIES IN MALAYSIA
1 Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (MALAYSIA)
2 Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (MALAYSIA)
About this paper:
Appears in: EDULEARN12 Proceedings
Publication year: 2012
Conference name: 4th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies
Dates: 2-4 July, 2012
Location: Barcelona, Spain
Abstract:The purpose of this concept paper is to discuss potential of the Orang Asli (Indigenous People) community in Malaysia to escape from poverty through tourism activity. Poor and poverty are identified as key challenges in developing effective Orang Asli community. The high level of poverty is closely related to the type of work, the problem of land ownership status and low education levels among Orang Asli communities. These problems do not only hinder the Orang Asli community development process, but it is also an obstacle to the integration effort of Orang Asli cluster with the current national progress as achieved by other ethnics (Malay, Chinese, Indian). The majority of the Orang Asli who live in rural areas are still relying to the traditional economic system which focuses to self-sufficiency and dependence on forest resources for survival. These economic resources that are seen could not guarantee employment and good and stable income to them due to low market prices or defrauded by a middle man who controls the price of goods sold. Besides that, other problems that arise among Orang Asli are migrations many of the youth due to lack of job opportunities that could ensure their future. 'Pro-Poor Tourism' (PPT) is an approach that aims to use tourism medium as a strategic method to reduce poverty among the marginalized communities. PPT is implemented in many developing countries as a way to improve the local economy by providing employment or micro enterprise spaces. To ensure the success of this approach, specific rules should be identified in which tourism businesses and tourists can directly and indirectly be developed to generate benefits for the poor. This is because the PPT is defined as tourism that provides a net benefit to the poor. PPT is a holistic approach to tourism development and management aimed in giving opportunities for the poor to get benefit from it. In addition, tourism has an advantage compared to other sectors in its ability to reduce poverty. This is clearly proof that tourism is a diverse industry and has more room for participation, especially from the informal and small sector. Through tourism, the customers are welcome to buy products and at the same time could offer opportunities to extend the market and sales and to establish networks. Tourism products can be developed through the nature resources and cultural goods that are priceless asset that belong to the poor. However, the Orang Asli communities hardly understand on how the assets could be commercialized and the benefits that can be generated via their own assets. On awareness that poverty should be eradicated and not inherited, the tourism sector through the PPT approach is believe could be a source of income, particularly for Orang Asli communities and other communities in general. Therefore, this study is carried out to produce a conceptual framework of implementation of PPT to help reduce, and eventually stop the poverty among Orang Asli Communities. Through the framework, it is hoped could be a reference for the Orang Asli community to be involved in the new job sector and ensuring they would gain a better source of income.
Keywords: Pro-Poor Tourism, Poverty, Orang Asli (Indigenous People).