1 Ghent University (BELGIUM)
2 Antwerp University (BELGIUM)
3 Antwerp University Hospital (BELGIUM)
4 Ghent University Hospital (BELGIUM)
About this paper:
Appears in: INTED2022 Proceedings
Publication year: 2022
Page: 1699 (abstract only)
ISBN: 978-84-09-37758-9
ISSN: 2340-1079
doi: 10.21125/inted.2022.0510
Conference name: 16th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
Dates: 7-8 March, 2022
Location: Online Conference
Improving the learning process of medical students during undergraduate and postgraduate clinical training is challenging, as the working environment is focused on patientcare rather than student learning. To optimize learning at the workplace, there is a need for direct observation to provide specific feedback. Unfortunately, direct observation is often hindered by logistical and situational issues. This is why the implementation of video recordings of students’ performances might be helpful to guide and structure the learning process. Although there are many individual studies dedicated to video use in medical education, there is no thorough overview of the available recommendations to implement video use, or to design studies evaluating this tool during workplace learning so far.

This study aims:
(1) to provide an overview of existing literature of video usage in medical education,
(2) to describe the advantages and pitfalls of implementation of video during workplace learning, and
(3) to define recommendations for future study designs using video recordings of students as educational tools.

An extensive literature review was performed in two databases: MEDLINE and Web of Science. Search terms in different categories were combined to maximize output. Different concepts were defined:
1) the population (medicine, medical education, medical student, medical trainee, resident),
2) the intervention (video, video feedback, video learning, video training, video evaluation, video teaching, recording, filming, multimedia),
3) the setting (workplace learning, clinical setting, clinical work, clinical training, clinical learning), and
4) the outcome (feedback, evaluation, reflection, assessment).

A total of 49 articles were found suitable for inclusion as they described video being used during authentic workplace learning, whereas 155 articles described video recordings in simulation settings. Only 1 article took the unpredictability of daily practice into account. Advantages included an improved learning process, more specific feedback, lower cognitive load, less scheduling issues, and many more. Pitfalls included costs, technical issues, feelings of stress and fear, and others. Among the recommendations, there was a need for a supportive learning climate, description of both student’s strengths and points of improvement, an emphasis on formative use, and implementing it among other forms of instruction and feedback practices.

Recording videos of students during workplace learning has already shown to improve the learning process in a structured clinical learning environment. Future studies might focus on implementing video during unpredictable daily practice, and their design could take into account the known advantages, pitfalls and recommendations that have been described in this literature review.
Video, workplace learning, feedback.