About this paper

Appears in:
Pages: 4529-4533
Publication year: 2020
ISBN: 978-84-09-17939-8
ISSN: 2340-1079
doi: 10.21125/inted.2020.1254

Conference name: 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
Dates: 2-4 March, 2020
Location: Valencia, Spain


T. Rezer

Ural Federal University (RUSSIAN FEDERATION)
IIn the late 19th and early 20th century a number of pedagogical theories, that continue to influence education to the present day, appeared. The reference to the research issue is also connected with the study of the pedagogical heritage and practice of the outstanding Russian teacher A. Makarenko (1888-1939). The evidence of international recognition of the pedagogical genius of A. Makarenko was the decision of UNESCO in 1988 concerning only four teachers who defined the way of pedagogical thinking in the 20th century. These are John Dewey, George Kerchensteiner, Maria Montessori, Anton Makarenko.

The aim of the research is to analyze the pedagogical heritage of outstanding teachers, whose thoughts and results continue to influence modern pedagogical thinking and approaches in education, in Russia and abroad.

We have used theoretical, historical and comparative methods to study the pedagogical heritage of outstanding teachers in Russia and abroad.

The results of the analysis and use of the chosen methods of research of pedagogical creativity and stages of great teachers’ life are the following statements:
1. Pedagogical theories in the late 19th and early 20th century are based on the activity approach (learning through activity) and ideas of labor education (D. Dewey, G. Kershennteiner, M. Montessori, A. Makarenko, N. Pirogov).
2. Sociological ideas have penetrated into pedagogy and given rise to a new direction of pedagogical thought: social pedagogy, the most famous representative of it was G. Kershensteiner.
3. Teachers-doctors of the late 19th and early 20th century for the first time showed and proved as a result of their medical and pedagogical activities that it is necessary to develop biological and social beginnings in the human harmoniously (N. Pirogov, M. Montessori).
4. The great teacher, doctor and philosopher M. Montessori in her writings constantly stressed that it is the focus on practice and professional actions in training that allows a child to be successful in life and profession.

It is shown that the use of medical-pedagogical approach in teaching allows training professional educational skills that determine the motivation to obtain knowledge in the future and making a person to be successful in life (T. Rezer).

In Russian science Makarenko was called the person who carried out unprecedented in pedagogical practice experience of mass re-education of children-offenders by connection of training with productive work of pupils and a practical orientation of training.
In our opinion, M. Montessori saw the role of the teacher not only in training and education, but also in the management of independent activities of a child taking into account his mental and physical development.

The world-renowned Russian scientist N. Pirogov simultaneously demanded the strengthening of fundamental university education for all professions. University and universal he considered synonymous in education, so, in his opinion, universal or university education does not exclude the existence of such special schools that would be engaged in practical or applied education of young people already prepared by universal education.

According to the G. Kerchensteiner we must teach people to see meaning in their lives caring about each other. The way to this is through a specially organized school education, involving camaraderie instead of the cult of individualism, as well as interaction instead of competition in teaching.
author = {Rezer, T.},
series = {14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference},
booktitle = {INTED2020 Proceedings},
isbn = {978-84-09-17939-8},
issn = {2340-1079},
doi = {10.21125/inted.2020.1254},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.21125/inted.2020.1254},
publisher = {IATED},
location = {Valencia, Spain},
month = {2-4 March, 2020},
year = {2020},
pages = {4529-4533}}
AU - T. Rezer
SN - 978-84-09-17939-8/2340-1079
DO - 10.21125/inted.2020.1254
PY - 2020
Y1 - 2-4 March, 2020
CI - Valencia, Spain
JO - 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
JA - INTED2020 Proceedings
SP - 4529
EP - 4533
ER -
T. Rezer (2020) PEDAGOGICAL HERITAGE DETERMINES THE FUTURE, INTED2020 Proceedings, pp. 4529-4533.