THE SUCCESS AND FAILURE OF APPLYING GAMIFICATION IN A LEARNING ENVIRONMENT FROM A PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
About this paper:
Appears in: ICERI2013 Proceedings
Publication year: 2013
Conference name: 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
Dates: 18-20 November, 2013
Location: Seville, Spain
Abstract:Gamification, which according to Deterding et al.  is the use of game elements in a non-gaming context, is a relatively new concept that is already being used in education due to its motivational effects and the fact that it is deeply connected to learning itself; still, if not implemented correctly, it can demotivate learners rather than incentivize them in some cases. In this paper we aim to examine how gamification can be effectively applied to education, trying to put the former into practice by viewing it in terms of psychology, and why it works more efficiently if viewed from this perspective, because we believe that gamification should be a psychology term rather than a business or an educational one.
Firstly, we will examine gamification from a behavioristic point of view, that of operant conditioning, developed by Skinner , elaborating on the notion of consequences.
Secondly, we will look at gamification in conjunction with the Cognitive Evaluation Theory and more specifically Self- determination Theory, which comes from Richard Ryan and Ed Deci .
Lastly, in view of these theories, we will look over the demotivating effects and how we can overcome them.
 Deterding, S., Khaled, R., Nacke, L. E., & Dixon, D. (2011, May). Gamification: Toward a definition. In CHI 2011 Gamification Workshop Proceedings.
 Skinner, B. F. (1963). Operant behavior. American Psychologist, 18(8), 503.
 Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American psychologist, 55(1), 68.
Keywords: Gamification, learning, psychology.