About this paper

Appears in:
Pages: 1503-1511
Publication year: 2013
ISBN: 978-84-616-3822-2
ISSN: 2340-1117

Conference name: 5th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies
Dates: 1-3 July, 2013
Location: Barcelona, Spain


A. Qvortrup

University of Southern Denmark (DENMARK)
Feedback is described as one of the most powerful factors in learning (Hattie 2009). A general assumption is, that feedback “empowers active learners with strategically useful information, thus supporting self-regulation” (Bangert-Drowns et al. 1991: 214).
Investigating feedback’s effect on learning, two main categories appear: one focused on changing or correcting learning outcomes and another focused on changing the learning process as a means for shaping knowledge and beliefs (Butler & Winne 1995).

A recurrent question deals with the relation between feedback and time and the success of feedback often described as related to differences between immediate or delayed feedback. However, research reveals a rather motley picture on this relation (Kulik & Kulik 1988; Azevedo & Bernard 1995; Kluger & DeNisi 1996; Mathan & Koedinger 2002; Shute 2008).

Presuming that the way to further understanding is to look for a new theoretical framework highly sensitive to the complexity in the picture of the impact of feedback, I will
1. Develop this framework and identify significant didactical issues
2. Discuss it in relation to an empirical example from face-2-face interaction
3. Apply the framework on on-line teaching and learning, focussing on a) synchronous vs 
asynchronous communication and b) fixed vs. fleeting communication

I suggest that the new framework is found in systems theory as described by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann (1985). Luhmann’s systems theory belongs to the so-called second generation of systems theory which is devoted to the understanding of the evolution and dynamics of complex units (systems). Luhmann’s work is extremely comprehensive but for the purpose of clarifying the impact of feedback, his concepts of self-referential, observing systems will be sufficient.

I will elaborate on the question of timing and feedback and develop didactical suggestions from an example using wikis in online teaching and learning:
4. The question of synchronous vs. asynchronous communication in relation to feedback, focusing on production of meaning and conditions for reflective communication
5. Fixed vs. fleeting communication in relation to conditions for observation and construction of feedback and in relation to conditions for reflective communication.
author = {Qvortrup, A.},
series = {5th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies},
booktitle = {EDULEARN13 Proceedings},
isbn = {978-84-616-3822-2},
issn = {2340-1117},
publisher = {IATED},
location = {Barcelona, Spain},
month = {1-3 July, 2013},
year = {2013},
pages = {1503-1511}}
AU - A. Qvortrup
SN - 978-84-616-3822-2/2340-1117
PY - 2013
Y1 - 1-3 July, 2013
CI - Barcelona, Spain
JO - 5th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies
JA - EDULEARN13 Proceedings
SP - 1503
EP - 1511
ER -
A. Qvortrup (2013) FEEDBACK AND WIKIS, EDULEARN13 Proceedings, pp. 1503-1511.