HOW TO FLIPPED THE CLASSROOM. HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION
Polytechnic of Porto / ISCAP (PORTUGAL)
About this paper:
Conference name: 9th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
Dates: 14-16 November, 2016
Location: Seville, Spain
Abstract:The flipped classroom is a pedagogical model which was created as a means of helping those students who could not attend classes at school not to miss the learning that was taught at school. The initial idea was to record the classes so students could watch the lessons at their own pace. This concept has grown and in order to reach wider objectives it is important to carefully focus on the process of designing a unit using the flipped methodology.
The objective of the design of a flipped lesson is to maximize the students’ participation in online and offline activities. It is important to analyses the context in which this will take place, set out the objectives pursued and the methodologies to use. This should consider the development of activities in the classroom and outside the classroom in order to encourage creativity in students as well as their motivation, besides accepting the error as of the learning process.
The case study presented in this paper derives from a European Project named Gaintime in your classroom that intends teach teachers how to implement a flipped classroom.
This paper describes the operative steps to implement the flipped methodology in traditional teaching in the context of a higher education. As a result we could attest that the success of the design of a flipped classroom depends on the alignment of what we want for students before, during, and after the class. Defining the scope is also important in order to guide teachers and to make clear to students what we expect from them. Planning is crucial in order to determine what and how much of the subject can be taught within the time frame (e.g. semester). It is important not to try teaching “everything” with lower development of cognitive objectives (understanding and comprehension). It is better to have fewer contents and develop deeper objectives such as a critical analysis or creativity. It is important to select only the most important and relevant “contents” of sub-topics that will make up a lesson. Usually, outside the class students develop lower levels of cognitive work, via reading or watching videos (gaining knowledge and comprehension) and in-class they focus on higher forms of cognitive work, harder work of assimilating knowledge, solving problems, debating or discussing some controversial issues (application, analysis, synthesis, and/or evaluation), where they have the support of their peers and instructor.
Another results is related to the role of teachers when implement a flipped classroom. It’s common opinion that teaching consists of lectures and assignments that cover topics listed in syllabus, give exams on these topics, and move on. In reality, respect to this more traditional model, educational techniques and strategies keep on evolving. The teacher’ role has changed, too. He / She is no longer a subject that has to transmit information but also an educator that tries to facilitate the student learning using the most suitable instruments. It’s a change of perspective necessary for the wide spreading of new technologies and pedagogical approaches that insist on the necessity to engage students in their own learning.
Keywords: Flipped Classroom, Blended-Learning, e-learning, Education, Instructional Model.