EDUCATION AND HERITAGE: THE ROLE OF FLAMENCO IN PRIMARY EDUCATION LAWS IN SPAIN

R.M. Perales Molada, E. Moreno Fuentes

Centro Universitario Sagrada Familia (SPAIN)
This paper will analyse the impact of flamenco on Primary Education in Spain after being inscribed in the representative list of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2010. To do so, a deep analysis will be carried out considering flamenco’s presence and its educational and patrimonial character in last three educational laws: LOGSE (General Organic Law of the Educational System); LOE (Organic Law of Education) and LOMCE (Organic Law for the Improvement and Educational Quality); and the Programs of Andalusian Culture of the eighties, as well.

Some studies led by López (2010), Salazar (2010), Crisol (2008) and Perea (2010) presuppose that flamenco belongs to the sociocultural context in which the student is born and grows up. However, flamenco is not always part of the cultural and familiar environment of students so, in this sense, we could not assure the presence of flamenco in the classroom but only as a part of its cultural roots. Taking as basis the anthropological foundations of flamenco, we can state it fosters the link between learners and their own culture and, in fact, it can help the process of becoming aware of not only its region history but also European and universal ones. Flamenco permits learners to delve into the historical evolution of humanity as well as to understand present times.

From a technical perspective, flamenco musical structures foster the fact of meeting and approaching other different rhythms, melodies, instruments, musical groups and harmonies. Actually, flamenco can enhance the knowledge of traditions and musical-theoretical systems related to it. In short, flamenco can be set up as a pedagogical resource to work on most key competencies of the Primary Education curriculum such as cultural awareness and expression, social and civic, linguistic, learning to learn, mathematical and science and technology key competencies.

Likewise, Cano and Ortega (2012) state that it would be enough with the demonstrated universality of flamenco so as to justify the appropriateness of its treatment in schools not only in the Andalusia but also in the whole country.

However, despite the fact that the Declaration of Flamenco as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity represented a turning point in its consideration and the positive recognition of its cultural and educational values, there are still many questions about its significance and appropriateness to be included into the school curriculum and its development.

Although there has been a progressive increase in the presence of flamenco from Andalusian Culture programs to the Andalusian curricular application of the LOMCE in Primary Education, we can conclude and state that flamenco has not still consolidated itself as a way to know, appreciate and value the Andalusian culture and as a musical and artistic content with its own entity. For this reason, granting a differential and exclusive treatment does not make sense since it would occupy a teaching time that does not even exist for Music Education.