Technical University of Dresden (GERMANY)
About this paper:
Appears in: ICERI2013 Proceedings
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 3307-3316
ISBN: 978-84-616-3847-5
ISSN: 2340-1095
Conference name: 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
Dates: 18-20 November, 2013
Location: Seville, Spain
The role and recognition of information and communication technology (ICT) in education has significantly increased; universities worldwide are concerned with fostering the acceptance and use of these new technologies. However, efforts to foster technology acceptance among educators individually remains a critical challenge (Hu et al., 2003). The limited number of researches that investigated Technology acceptance model (TAM) in non-western culture, among that Sudan as well as the low acceptance rate of ICT in higher education and the growing concern on the effect of culture and social factors, motivated the proposal of this study (cp. Traxler 2010, Fischer 2012, Klampfer 2012). The study was designed to understand the main factors that influence acceptance and use of computer by staff members (SM) in Khartoum State Universities (KSUs). Specifically, the study aims to focus on an insight in the influence of social influence process (S.I.P) and culture (as a main constructs and moderating factors) on SM’ acceptance and use of computer in their teaching and academic activities.

To do so, a model and relevant questionnaire were developed based on TAM (Davis, 1989) and other theories to avoid its limitations. Namely, the model incorporates three major variables: (S.I.P ) which include social norm (SN) and image (IM) from TAM2 (Venkatesh and Davis, 2000); situational factor (include facilitating factors ( FF) and constraints (CO) from social influence model of technology use (Fulk et al., 1990)) and cultural factor (including uncertainty avoidance (UA) and masculinity femininity (MF)) from Hofstedes cultural theory (Hofstede, 1980).
Data were collected from a survey which was given to the teaching staff of KSUs (public and private), where 787 SM were investigated and 527 responses were obtained. Using PLS, the assessment of measurement and structural model was performed and the measurements model validity and reliability were confirmed. All core TAM constructs and paths were found significant except the path between perceived ease of use and behavioral intention which hits to possible effect of experience on technology acceptance. While Structural Equation modeling was used to examine and assess the study model, a multi group analysis (MGA) was used to analyze moderating effects.

The study demonstrates and supports the validity and applicability of TAM and the research model in the study setting. Whereas findings prove the significant positive effect of FF on SMs acceptance however CO were found to have a negative insignificant effect. Also the study found that social and cultural factors each have a significant effect on SMs acceptance and use of computer technology. S.I.P was found to play a significant critical role in SMs computer acceptance. Cultural factors (UA and MF) were found to have direct and indirect (moderating) effects. The direct effect of culture is mediated through perceived ease of use rather than perceived usefulness and the indirect effect influence mainly S.I.P relations. Thus the study concluded that culture and social factors matter and should be considered in using ICT as a teaching and education technology, as provided in the current case of Higher Academic Education by SMs in KSUs. Finally a detailed discussion contributing to knowledge and practice is presented. Also some recommendations and conclusions were drawn.
TAM, MGA, culture, KSUs.