Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF) (BRAZIL)
About this paper:
Appears in: ICERI2013 Proceedings
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 2136-2144
ISBN: 978-84-616-3847-5
ISSN: 2340-1095
Conference name: 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
Dates: 18-20 November, 2013
Location: Seville, Spain
There was a significant drop in income inequality in Brazil in recent years, especially in governments Fernando Henrique Cardoso (1995-2002) and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2010). Although the country has gone through a substantial economic growth since 2003, and that public policies have been designed to reduce this inequality, we observe that the high level of income inequality impacts on the country's ability to reduce poverty and social inequality. Moreover, the Gini index is still very high (over 0.50), especially when we seek comparisons with developed countries (Gini lower than 0.40). Thus, the reduction of social inequality is understood today as one of the greatest challenges for Brazil. In an attempt to explain the causes of the Brazilian inequality, education is always presented as a determinant factor for the wage level that can be achieved. Also, another factor that has historically contributed to the production and reproduction of inequality in the country is related to the territory, mainly by the uneven distribution of educational opportunities, so that the place where you live can influence employment opportunities and income level of the individual or families. However, a careful look at the challenges and possibilities Brazilians face can result in better ways to design and implement policies, guidelines, programs and actions in order to minimize the educational inequalities in all its dimensions. Therefore, this study aims to identify whether education is a variable that can explain inequality in Brazil. Thus, studies that tried to interpret the phenomenon of inequality in the country by identifying historical characteristics and causes were sought. After the presentation of the literature review on the relation between education and inequality and also the presentation of researches that aimed to explain the perceived inequality in Brazil, it is clear that educational inequality, measured by access to and maintenance of low-income population in school, the number of years of study and results in national assessments, is an independent variable of great explanatory power for the phenomenon of income inequality in Brazil. Also shown are the positive effects of investing in the training of the poorest by providing educational opportunities, believing that the reduction of educational inequality will lead to reduced income inequality, creating a virtuous circle.
Education, social inequalities, development.