1 Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JAPAN)
2 Keio Research Institute at SFC (JAPAN)
3 Keio University (JAPAN)
4 University of Helsinki (FINLAND)
About this paper:
Appears in: INTED2013 Proceedings
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 2969-2975
ISBN: 978-84-616-2661-8
ISSN: 2340-1079
Conference name: 7th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
Dates: 4-5 March, 2013
Location: Valencia, Spain
1. Introduction
Under certain favorable circumstances field trips to out-of-school settings may lead to better learning outcomes than school-based instruction (DeWitt et al, 2008). However, there are doubts whether field trips really have longer-term impact (ibid.). DeWitt et al suggest that the impact of field trip would be enhanced by making the experience more memorable and personal. In this paper we develop a Pedagogical Pattern (see Laurillard, 2012) for a field trip to zoo, which enables pupils to reflect their experience and learning content by making stories about animals with the use of ICT.

2. Methods
A project was conducted in a zoo in Tokyo, Japan in 2006. We summarized and analyzed the project in conformity to action research (Cohen et al, 2011: 344), within the scope of plan, act, observe, and reflect.
2.1 Plan
The zoo used to conduct two-days educational program for primary school children annually before we started the study. The program aimed at facilitating participants to learn about animals living in the zoo and to make a poster as a learning outcome, which would be exhibited in the zoo. The problem was that it was difficult for participants to reflect their experience and reuse the learning outcome after the program because the learning outcome (poster) was made and stored only in the zoo. An educator in the zoo and one of the authors collaboratively discussed and modified the program by adding a new activity, making stories about animals with the use of ICT, to the existing program.
2.2 Act
In total 18 primary school children aged 11 to 12 (grade 5 to 6) chosen by lottery participated in the program.
2.3 Observe
In total 18 audio files of stories were made. After the program, the audio files were uploaded to a special website, which enabled participants and other people to listen to them. Questionnaire was carried out to participants and the answers were analyzed.
2.4 Reflect
Conversational Frameworks (Laurillard, 2012) were made in order to compare the previous program (without an activity of making digital stories) and the new one (with a process of making digital stories). Based on this, two Pedagogical Patterns were extracted.

3. Conclusion
According to the answers to the questionnaire, the program was positively evaluated by the participants. It is believed that the activity of making digital stories could be effective for participants to iteratively reflect what they experienced in the program. The proposed Conversational Frameworks visually explained how the two frameworks were different. Theoretically it is easier for learner to iteratively reflect what they experienced with the use of digital stories. The challenge of this study is continuous implementation and evaluation of the program in collaboration with other institutions, e.g. schools, to verify the actual longer-term impact of the program.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., and Morrison, K. 2011. Research Methods in Education: 7th Edition, New York: Routledge.
DeWitt, J., and Storksdieck, M. 2008. A Short Review of School Field Trip: Key Findings from the Past and Implications for the Future. Visitor Studies, 11(2), 181-197.
Laurillard, D., 2012. Teaching as a Design Science: Building Pedagogical Patterns for Learning and Technology. New York: Routledge.
Field trip, Pedagogical Pattern, digital stories, ICT.