J. Montusiewicz1, M. Miłosz1, R. Kayumov2

1Lublin University of Technology (POLAND)
2Samarkand State University (UZBEKISTAN)
The paper presents the operation principles of 3D scanning technologies of different size objects, from very small (a few centimeters) to very large (several hundred meters, e.g. buildings, airplanes). They are commonly used by engineers of different specialties, and can be useful in archaeological research. One of the leading technologies involves the emission of structured light on the digitised object. Refraction of light on the object, and then comparing the distortion with the master matrix allows the calculation of spatial coordinates of individual points on the surface of the object. Another 3D scanning technology uses laser. The delay in the time it takes for the light ray reflected from the surface to return also makes it possible to calculate the coordinates of a given point of the analysed object. These methods are completely non-invasive with respect to the scanned object, which allows their application in archaeological research. Scanning methods are complemented by technologies for rapid prototyping of virtual objects in the real world by using 3D printers.

The use of the above modern technologies, assisted by advanced software, requires specialised preparation. In view of the fact that their profession belongs to the area of humanities, archaeologists usually do not have sufficient knowledge of the technical sciences, including specialist skills in information technology such as computer graphics and 3D technology.

This paper describes a method of archaeological training which at the first stage covers the adoption of specialised nomenclature in the field of computer 3D graphics, at the second stage - the basic operations of 3D scanners and replicators, and at the third stage – mastering the basic programming skills for post-processing 3D scans and object preparation for 3D printing, as well as the environment enabling reconstruction of artifacts which could not be found in excavations or were destroyed. In the training process use was made of the devices and software from the Laboratory of Intelligent Systems Programming and Computer 3D Technology, being part of the Institute of Computer Science of the Lublin University of Technology in Poland. The methodological research is carried out within the cooperation between the Lublin University of Technology, Poland, and the Samarkand State University, Uzbekistan.