REVIEWING THE NURSING CAREER AND PROFESSION, PRIMARY HEALTHCARE AND HOSPITAL HEALTHCARE IN PORTUGAL AND SPAIN
1 Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Facultad de Enfermería. Instituto de Investigación en Discapacidades Neurológicas (IDINE) (SPAIN)
2 Escola Superior de Enfermagem do Porto. Investigador Integrado CINTESIS (PORTUGAL)
3 Escola Superior de Enfermagem do Porto (PORTUGAL)
4 Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, E.T.S. Ingenieros Agrónomos y de Montes, Relaciones Internacionales (SPAIN)
About this paper:
Conference name: 13th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
Dates: 9-10 November, 2020
Location: Online Conference
This work was conducted as a result of ERASMUS + mobility in the Practicum II subject, which is taught in year 4, and was cancelled due to Covid-19. We decided to review the Nursing degree and career, and the healthcare characteristics of two countries involved in Erasmus mobility: Portugal and Spain.
Know how the nursing career evolves and professional opportunities; identify National Health System (NHS) characteristics in Portugal and Spain.
A descriptive review study was conducted at the Albacete Faculty of Nursing (Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha). Nursing degree curricula were analysed since the degree was set up as vocational training to the present-day. The differences and similarities of this nursing profession, and in the NHS of both countries, were identified.
This study comprises three main parts: "How professional nursing develops"; "Nurses’ Training and Skills"; “The NHS". A comparative analysis between was made of both countries in each part.
Nursing care and the nursing profession date back to the 19th century in both countries. In Portugal, a nursing profession diploma was awarded in 1919 and studying the nursing career was extended to 3 years in 1960. In 1975, University Nursing Diplomas appeared, as did the 4-year Nursing Bachelor’s Degree in 1999 like other European Community countries.
In Spain, the Moyano Law came into force in 1957, which passed Medical Assistant and Midwife teaching, and led to the Midwife Qualification. In 1896, the first school of nurses opened. In 1916, the Regulation on the first midwives school was passed. In 1945, National Council Statutes of Provincial Schools for Health Workers were passed with three qualifications: medical assistant, midwife, qualified nurse. In 1952, registered nurses studies were unified. Moving towards the university nursing career coincided with Portugal.
Specialisation in Portugal consists in a 2-year Master, and passing an internal nursing system exam before studying a 2-year speciality in Spain.
The Portuguese health system has four levels: community primary healthcare; secondary healthcare in hospital units; post-hospital “continuous attention” care; palliative care.
The Spanish health system contains primary and specialised healthcare, with the former in different medical centres and the latter with hospitals.
The NHS of both includes certain programmes, such as vaccines for infants and adolescents, and influenza vaccinations.
The nursing career has developed differently in both countries, where the NHS was created with the same objectives, but marked differences appear between primary/hospital healthcare. The main mission of nursing in both is offering care, and improving people’s quality of life and health. As both countries are geographically close, this information is very interesting for society and NHS users as it allows us to know the nursing reality and its tasks in both countries.
Keywords: History of nursing, primary healthcare, hospital healthcare, vocational training, NHS.