1 Techische Universit├Ąt Clausthal (GERMANY)
2 University of Alabama in Huntsville, College of Nursing (UNITED STATES)
3 Systems Management and Production Center, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UNITED STATES)
About this paper:
Appears in: INTED2022 Proceedings
Publication year: 2022
Pages: 1861-1870
ISBN: 978-84-09-37758-9
ISSN: 2340-1079
doi: 10.21125/inted.2022.0548
Conference name: 16th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
Dates: 7-8 March, 2022
Location: Online Conference
This paper presents the development of an inexpensive peripheral venous catheter trainer for each nursing student in the College of Nursing (CON) to practice on his/her own time. A peripheral venous catheter (also referred to as an IV) is an invasive procedure and one of the most commonly performed nursing procedures. An IV is placed into a vein in the hand or arm for venous access to administer medication or fluids. The catheter is inserted in the vein by a trocar needle. The cannula is a tube that surrounds the needle. The needle is subsequently removed, leaving the cannula in place for administrating medicines or fluids. In the 1990s over 25million patients in the U.S. had an IV each year.

The Systems Management and Production (SMAP) Center worked closely with the CON in formulating the following design requirements for the IV trainer:
1) a mixture ratio of the silicone rubber to achieve a feel of flesh,
2) a collapsible mold for simplifying the removal of the IV pad with encapsulated vein tubing,
3) a tubing material to simulate the veins which is critical to obtain the look and feel of veins,
4) a pigment color for the silicon rubber so the veins are not so obvious to the students and
5) a location of the tubing (distance of the vein to the skin surface) that is encapsulated in the silicone rubber to give students the feel of veins.

Dragon Skin FX-Pro silicone rubber was used for the trainer flesh. Dragon Skin has been developed for creating skin effects and special effects for the movie industry. Slacker tactile mutator was added to Dragon Skin to change the feel of the silicone rubber to a softer and more flesh-like material. Eleven variations of an IV pad were fabricated.

Based on feedback from the CON faculty the following parameters were selected:
1) mixture ratio 1PartA: 1PartB: 0.5PartS (Slacker),
2) 5mm and 6mm diameter natural latex rubber yellow tubing (used in medical applications) and
3) 1.5mm distance from the surface for the 5mm tubing and 2.5mm from the surface for the 6mm tubing.

The resulting IV trainer was a combination of Pad6 and Pad11. The pad is approximately 3x4 inches and 0.75inches thick. The faculty wanted the pad to be a darker flesh pigment to hide the veins and the tubes deeper to make it more of a challenge for the students to locate the veins. The students follow the following procedure in using the trainer. A syringe injects red dyed water into the trainer tubes (veins) which provides instant feedback when the procedure is performed correctly. Once the water has filled the tubes and the air removed, pinch clamps are installed on the ends of the tubes. The syringe valve is closed and the pad is ready for use. The student will palpate for a vein and insert the peripheral venous catheter. Red dyed water will appear in the catheter (flashback chamber) when inserted correctly. The catheter is then advanced into the vein and the needle is removed. A tubing extension can be attached to assist in administrating medicines or fluids. An IV bag can be used instead of the syringe to deliver the red dyed water. Students in SMAP fabricated the trainers for the nursing students. Plans are to obtain feedback from the students after a semester of use. The estimated material costs were $4.50 for the Dragon Skin, Slacker and tubing and $3 for the catheter, syringe or IV bag, valves and clamps. The next phase of the project is to conduct a student evaluation of the trainers
Peripheral venous catheter trainer, IV, design requirements, tubing extension.