PERCEPTIONS OF TEACHERS ON THE TEACHING OF VALUES IN THE SUBJECT OF SOCIAL SCIENCES: GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY IN SECONDARY EDUCATION
The values are dynamic and historical realities, subject to changes in their ranking, hence still the same forms, modes and manifestations are different, depending on the culture and according to a particular historical moment (González Nieto, 2002, p. 24); this means that oriented and integrated into the individual based on what this one has internalized through socialization and are tied to feelings, attitudes, etc., manifested in behavior (Torrego & Moreno, 2007). This means that values are acquired and learned. The school is an ideal context to teach values, so that the student develops, assertively, moral judgment, and adopt roles and cognitive functions in social interaction (Kohlberg, 1992, Bosello, 1999 & Cortés, 2004) . This autonomy is associated as the moral condition consciousness to guide to act from "doing good by conviction and not by obligation," being acquired, thus maturity. Therefore, values education that contribute to the moral development of a person means favoring autonomous people. Teaching values is to guide the individual to choose freely, in its autonomy, those principles and rules that allow them to behave in a fair and caring towards others and himself. In this paper, the values that teachers think should be integrated into the subject of Social Sciences to be considered: Geography and History in Secondary Education in Spain, specifically in 1st, 2nd and 3rd course.The methodology used in this study is mixed (quantitative and qualitative). The study is based on a survey design with a random sample stratified by educational level and province. The population is made up of schools in Valencia (Spain). The educational stage of sampling is Secondary Education. Regarding the types of centers, we have taken into account the public and private schools. The sample consisted of 1750 teachers in 1st, 2nd and 3rd years of Secondary Education. The survey was developed by the Research Group Indiscipline and Violence in Education, Faculty of Education, University of Alicante. It raised 28 items, all relating to different values. Teachers were asked about the values they believe should be included in the teaching of Social Sciences: Geography, History. The objective of the survey is to determine, from the opinion of teachers, what attitudes are most relevant to teach the above subjects.
To reflect the ítems, the Likert scale was used: Always be required (5), should almost always be proposed (4) Sometimes, in a subject (3), Rarely, in a subject and freely (2), should never be promoted at the center (1).
Data were collected between the months of September 2013 and November 2014 and were transcribed and organized in the on-line platform of the research group. Subsequently, the analysis and interpretation was made. Statistical analyzes were performed in SPSS 11.5. The emphasis on the descriptive statistics, in order to know the preferences of teachers, and cluster analysis by K-means technique to establish the relationship between values and ICT teaching was done.