WAYS TO CARRY OUT DIFFERENTIATED TRAINING IN PRIMARY EDUCATION – PEDAGOGICAL ABORDATION
Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu (ROMANIA)
In this paper we present some theoretical and practical relevant aspects of organization and development of differentiated training, a way to optimize the educational process that considers the development of the teaching-learning-assessment process based on teaching strategies adapted to the different possibilities of students, their ability to understand and work. In this way we offer the child that "inner compass" that will help him orient himself in the future.
Research took place to a first grade class in a primary school during last academic year, before the lockdown. In order to differentiate the activity with the students, according to the concrete requirements from case to case, worksheets of different types can be used from the point of view of the structure and the degree of difficulty. The first type of files are those that have common content with unique tasks. Such a file contains, according to the objectives pursued, a number of tasks, staggered in the increasing order of difficulties, of which the student can solve some or all, according to the level of knowledge and his own work rhythm. In such a worksheet, the first tasks refer to the basic knowledge: recognition, identification, reproduction, and their solution is mandatory by all students. The second type of worksheets are those with unique content but with tasks with different levels of difficulty. In these sheets are introduced information and support points differentiated for categories of students. An example of such a worksheet can be used in grammar in grades II-IV, in order for students to learn to write the letters "m" and "n" before the consonants "p" and "b". Within the groups, the tasks are established both individually and collectively, depending on the content approached, the individual particularities in order to capitalize on the interests and skills of each. Collective work tasks are graded so as to give all students the opportunity to capitalize on their own abilities.
The differentiation of education as a way to support students in the learning activity at the level of individual possibilities is achieved in the lesson, especially in that part of the lesson which aims at fixing, deepening and applying knowledge. An effective independent work technique is working with worksheets. The individualized work- sheets, initiated by Robert Dottrens in the work "Educating and training" are appropriate solutions to solve the following major problems. Another category of tasks involves the fuller intellect, being more complex exercises, solving problems that require knowledge transfer and techniques, new examples, various solutions, etc. A third category of tasks is part of the plan of creativity. Students are asked to interpret, discover new aspects, relationships, invent, develop compositions, compose and solve problems. Homework and assignments indicated in the worksheets can be solved by students in class (guided or independently) and at home. In both cases, the teacher will present to the students the minimum information necessary for their conscious and correct solution, indications regarding the working methods and techniques, the necessary bibliography. Working with worksheets is one of the activating methods and is an effective way to modernize the traditional lesson.