International Islamic University (PAKISTAN)
About this paper:
Appears in: EDULEARN09 Proceedings
Publication year: 2009
Pages: 2827-2835
ISBN: 978-84-612-9801-3
ISSN: 2340-1117
Conference name: 1st International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies
Dates: 6-8 July, 2009
Location: Barcelona ,Spain
The paper has been designed to investigate the causes leading to under representation of women‘s leadership particularly in the teaching force which is largely dominated by women nationally and internationally (Newman, 1994). Despite the fact, women are largely under-represented in leadership positions. Barriers to women leadership exists worldwide (Schien (2001). Studies on gender and leadership has revealed number of obstructions for women which has serious background in developing countries. The study was delimited to 10 universities of Pakistan. Data was collected through participant observations, focus group interviews and a structured questionnaire adapted from the studies of Wise and Bond (2003) and Rosser (2004) and reproduced according to the cultural and social value system of Pakistan. Data collected through observations, interviews and questionnaires was analyzed quantitatively applying percentile and the results obtained were discussed. The study led to the findings that the barriers to women progression to leadership roles in Pakistani universities are of three basic types; the social, the organizational and the biological barriers. The research led to the conclusion that Pakistani women is oppressed, underrepresented especially in the leadership roles. There career development is hampered by the family, societal, and organizational structures that govern them. To promote women's progression, significant transformation is needed in the family and organizational structures so that their talent pool can be utilized.

Schien, V.E. (2001), "A global look at psychological barriers to women's progress in management", Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 57 No.4, pp.675-88
Rosser, S.V. (2004), "Using power to advance: institutional barriers identified by women scientists and engineers", NWSA Journal, Vol. 16 No.1.
Wise, S., Bond, S. (2003), "Work-life policy: does it do exactly what it says on the tin?” Women in Management Review, Vol. 18 No.1, pp.20-31