About this paper

Appears in:
Pages: 1116-1125
Publication year: 2011
ISBN: 978-84-614-7423-3
ISSN: 2340-1079

Conference name: 5th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
Dates: 7-9 March, 2011
Location: Valencia, Spain


A. Majeed1, C. McGowan2

1Fiserv Limited (UNITED KINGDOM)
2University of Northampton (UNITED KINGDOM)
The purpose of this study was to highlight the current e-learning experience across universities for both male and female students.

This study has examined a number of factors that affect male and female students (from a ICT discipline) e-learning experience. It has measured the degree to which these identified factors affect gender. The paper has concluded with a number of practical recommendations for improving e-learning and how these differences can be overcome.

Design / Methodology / Approach:
This comparative study has compared and contrasted an equal number of male (150) and female (150) undergraduate students across a number of universities in Pakistan. The data was collected through an online questionnaire completed by final year undergraduate students studying ICT. This methodological approach (matched samples) was used to identify and explore gender differences in the e-learning experience.

The online positivism questionnaire was adopted to collect statistical data on the two matched samples (male and female). Followed by six in-depth semi-structured interviews (three male and three female students), in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of why these e-learning experiences have occurred. This enabled the author to understand why these various underlying factors have affected male and female students in terms of promoting or hindering their overall experience of e-learning within their University. This methodological approach has captured both statistical as well as the respondent’s views, feelings, emotions, motivations, aspirations and so forth.

Prior work:
E-Learning is not a new phenomenon in Pakistan. A number of studies have been carried out to assess the impact on e-learning (Iqbal, Shahzad and Sohail, 2010; Cuadrado-Gardia, Ruiz-Molina, Montoro-Pons, 2010) to name a few. But to date no study has focused specifically on ‘gender differences regarding the e-learning experience at university level’ and how these factors can be overcome in Pakistan.

Originality / Value:
The originality of this study lies in the distinctive methodological framework adopted. No other study (to date) has conducted a comparative study of male and female students in terms of the e-learning experience at undergraduate level. There is only a limited amount of existing literature in regards to e-learning and gender related factors. The findings of this study has provided many new insights into the e-learning experience in Pakistan focusing specifically on gender differences regarding the use of e-learning. This paper contributes to knowledge by beginning to fill the aforementioned gaps and addressing the need for additional work.

The analyses of the quantitative and qualitative data suggest several factors that affect both male and female undergraduates. However, the results have highlighted a number of factors that tend to affect female students more than compared to their male counterpart. These factors identified ranged from lack of infrastructure, lack of funding, government support, and computer literacy to mention a few. From these results a number of practical recommendations have been made on how the e-learning experience in terms of gender could be improved for further university students within Pakistan.
author = {Majeed, A. and McGowan, C.},
series = {5th International Technology, Education and Development Conference},
booktitle = {INTED2011 Proceedings},
isbn = {978-84-614-7423-3},
issn = {2340-1079},
publisher = {IATED},
location = {Valencia, Spain},
month = {7-9 March, 2011},
year = {2011},
pages = {1116-1125}}
AU - A. Majeed AU - C. McGowan
SN - 978-84-614-7423-3/2340-1079
PY - 2011
Y1 - 7-9 March, 2011
CI - Valencia, Spain
JO - 5th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
JA - INTED2011 Proceedings
SP - 1116
EP - 1125
ER -
A. Majeed, C. McGowan (2011) E-LEARNING EXPERIENCE FOR GENDER IN PAKISTAN, INTED2011 Proceedings, pp. 1116-1125.