SIMULATION TRAINING SCENARIOS: THE CRITICAL ELEMENT IN A SUCCESSFUL SIMULATION BASED EXPERIENCE FOR TRAINING NURSING STUDENTS
This presentation discusses the development of simulation training scenarios that is a critical element of a successful simulation based experience (SBE) in training nursing students.
The steps in the development of the simulation training scenario are:
1) conduct needs assessment,
2) define measurable objectives,
3) develop simulation format,
4) develop clinical scenario,
5) identify simulation fidelity,
6) prepare facilitator guidelines,
7) develop briefing guidelines,
8) develop debriefing guidelines,
9) develop evaluation criteria,
10) develop participant guidelines, and
11) pilot test simulation training scenario (Lioce, et.al;2015).
The College of Nursing at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) has used the above steps in developing 130 simulation training scenarios. Simulation based experiences provide well-documented training simulation scenarios, repeatability of an exercise, consistency in training and standardization in the learning process. The College of Nursing has recently moved into a new building that includes a 10,600 sift Learning & Technology Resources Center. The Center houses a sixteen bed hospital laboratory, a four bed obstetric/pediatric laboratory and five high-fidelity simulation laboratories with facilitator control rooms, examination rooms, and student/faculty debriefing rooms. This presentation describes the new Learning & Technology Resources Center, the steps in developing simulation training scenarios and the use of these scenarios combined with human patient simulators in the training of nursing students.
The current teaching standard for most nursing education consists of:
1) passive reviews of the literature,
2) didactic teaching
3) skill check-offs and
4) observations by nurses at the bedside.
Additional training then follows with the student conducting independent performance of procedures on real human patients. While mastery of content and observation of clinical applications are necessary steps they are not sufficient to achieve professional competency.
Competency checklists have also been designed to satisfy regulatory requirements that have been placed on institutions. These checklists do not provide feedback and enhance technical and behavioral skills of nurses. The Institute of Medicine has questioned the effectiveness of this traditional training model.
Simulation based experience (SBE) is an approach that facilitates the use of higher order thinking skills. Simulation based experiences challenge nursing students to develop cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills through the use of human patient simulators, medical equipment, and assistance and mentoring from faculty and staff. During the simulation scenarios, nursing students must make use of their knowledge to analyze and synthesize factors contributing to the problems and to evaluate the effects of their actions. Successful simulation based experiences require many factors. First and foremost a considerable of pre-planning is necessary to assure the desired outcome. Second, each training simulation must have well defined objectives or outcomes. Next a well-defined and documented protocol or script is necessary. This script is called a training simulation scenario. The simulation based experience must have the ability of repeatability. There must also be a method for measuring the outcomes of the training simulation. Finally a process must be in place for feedback to the students.