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J. Lee, J. Hong, H.D. Song

Chungang-University (KOREA, REPUBLIC OF)
Education paradigm is shifted to consumer-centered and performance-centered with developing technology and shifting to learner-centered instruction. Because of the social atmosphere that emphasis on cooperation and interaction, there is a need for team learning that can raises cooperation, interaction, and practical ability of knowledge rather than delivering knowledge. Small group learning can be used for this reason. This small group learning is instruction that learners learn with colleagues for achieving their team goal. But, it is very difficult to use small group learning for instruction in large class in university. Furthermore it is just conducted as part of lecture class. There are no other different benefits from only lecture class. In this situation, team-based learning-TBL- can be a solution. This TBL is instruction that can make learner engage as much as possible in learning by making team consist of 7~8 person based on constructivism learning theory. But teacher should prepare many things for design TBL it takes very long time. And there is no specific process or model for designing of class. Despite TBL is applied for large class in university, because of these problems, instructors have many difficulties for conducting TBL. So it is important to guide for teacher to using this TBL more easily.

This study examine the characteristics of TBL instruction and compared team-based learning, problem-based learning and small group learning-many people don't distinguish differences between them. And then, we develop TBL model based on the characteristics and differences. For this, we conducted literature review about team-based learning.

The results of the developmental research study were as follows: The model consists of five step-analysis, design, development, simulation, and evaluation and feedback. The evaluation and feedback is conducted continuously during every step. After analyzing for assignment, environment, and learner, we determine whether result of the analysis is appropriate for TBL. If the result is appropriate for TBL, we design environment, contents, method of organizing team, grade system, and peer evaluating system. Learning environment should be useful for gathering team members. Team should be organized considering learner characteristics so there are no members whose characteristics are similar. In development step, we develop reading material, evaluation question of learning preparation, practical problem, mini lecture, tool for evaluation and tool for distribution of materials. The important thing in TBL is that problem proposed in class should be practical problem. And learner should only discuss each other and answer the problem during whole class. And if they have difficult to acquire knowledge, it will be good to prepare mini lecture. After development, we can simulate this plan, and evaluate.

TBL is useful in terms of dealing with practical problem in class. Through this course, learners can acquire problem solving skills in real
world. They can also many other skills-communication, creativity, practical ability, critical thinking and high level thinking. This model can make instructor prepare to practice and take action to perform TBL instruction more easily.