ENHANCING UNDERGRADUATE LEARNING IN A CLINICAL SETTING: A NEW MODEL
More than three decades ago, there was a shift in higher education with the promotion of learner-centered learning. In this sense, post-secondary institutions, while being central actors for technological and scientific innovation, must rely on their capacity to develop students’ abilities and competencies in diverse learning environments, including in contexts of clinical training. Different methods exist to encourage the development of critical and analytical thinking among learners whose contribution is essential to resolving complex problems encountered by health professionals. More precisely, many feedback methods are suggested in the literature. However, few of them have empirical data to support their relevance, uses and consequences. However, a new educational strategy, SNAPPS,* which favors students’ verbalization of their clinical approach, and its supervision, was developed in the field of medicine. Some studies report positive effects of this method on the quality of the clinical approach and interventions of nursing students. While the promotion of this learner-centered method during training is relevant pedagogically, a successful implementation must take into account the distinctive clinical features of nursing sciences training. Since the SNAPPS method is part of a medical perspective, a pilot study was conducted to adapt it so as to better support the clinical reasoning of nursing students in a clinical setting. The first objective of the project was to validate the relevance of this method among stakeholders involved in clinical training. The second was to collect recommendations on adjustments needed to bring the method more in line with the reality of nursing care. To achieve this, a focus group was conducted among students, training supervisors, and people in charge of training in nursing sciences, respectively in two universities in the province of Quebec. Conversations were recorded and a research assistant also took notes. A summary of each focus group discussion was provided and validated by the main researcher. They were then assembled in a single summary that was submitted to participants by e-mail. Following the e-mail, semi-structured interviews were performed with participants to validate the results described in the summary and to enrich them. This paper presents the results emphasizing the relevance of SNAPPS as a learner-centered method which, according to participants, has many advantages for nursing students and supervisors alike. The presentation of recommendations to adapt this method to a nursing setting precedes the presentation of a version adapted to a nursing perspective that also integrates patients’ participation in the clinical process. The advantages and limitations of this method will also be discussed.
• S - summarize the case
• N - narrow the differential
• A - analyze the differential
• P - probe the preceptor
• P - plan management
• S - select an issue for self directed learning