About this paper

Appears in:
Page: 5123 (abstract only)
Publication year: 2020
ISBN: 978-84-09-24232-0
ISSN: 2340-1095
doi: 10.21125/iceri.2020.1114

Conference name: 13th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
Dates: 9-10 November, 2020
Location: Online Conference


P. Lane

Grand Valley State University/UNAN Managua (UNITED STATES)
Design Thinking is increasingly important across the disciplines. The model from the Stanford Design School has five components.


Empathy is getting to know and understand your customer. It requires observation and engagement. Second, defining the problem to a manageable opportunity. Many people want to look at problems such as the 2030 UNESCO Sustainability Goals. They are far too large and in order to start work they need to be brought down to size. It is best if you can bring the problem down to one person one family, one village. Third, ideation requires using several different techniques to try to develop ideas around the defined problem.

The author has presented papers on these three topics, (Empathy, Definition, and Ideation) at ICERI in 2017-2019. This paper is on the fourth component, Prototyping. Below are the box titles for a simple matrix of some methods of prototyping that will be the base of the paper. In the paper matrix there are over 20 types of prototyping presented. There are more types, but this will help the reader to understand some of the strengths and weaknesses of different types.

Prototyping Matrix Boxes
1. Rough prototype focused on creating quantities of prototypes.
2. Rough prototype focused on more visual definition
3. Rough prototypes focused on showing functionality
4. Refined prototypes focused quantity
5. Refined prototypes focused on visual definition
6. Refined prototypes showing partial or complete functionality

Prototyping is part of the creative process. Ideas change when a group tries to commit to paper. People talking the same ideas sketch them very differently. Ideas change when you start to make them real by putting the simplest things together. Changing the materials can help the developers change ideas. One of the favorites is to give students three different sets of materials sequentially after they have defined a problem.

The author uses several prototyping exercises in classes:
Five pieces of Trash
Three different sets of material for the same problem
Defined problem and a limited set of materials
Building a park of the future around one UNESCO SDG.
Making someone else’s idea real

People generally have a lot of fun; prototyping is hands on work. They get to think about how something might function. How are they going to communicate that to others? It is a real opportunity for student growth, for different students to shine. Often the builders in the class are not necessarily the idea people.

Many who study design thinking treat prototyping lightly. The author and colleagues spend two semesters on this exciting area moving from ideation through several stages of prototyping and refinement. Engage your students in active-applied learning. The paper gives you ideas about how to put prototyping into your classes.
author = {Lane, P.},
title = {PROTOTYPING},
series = {13th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation},
booktitle = {ICERI2020 Proceedings},
isbn = {978-84-09-24232-0},
issn = {2340-1095},
doi = {10.21125/iceri.2020.1114},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.21125/iceri.2020.1114},
publisher = {IATED},
location = {Online Conference},
month = {9-10 November, 2020},
year = {2020},
pages = {5123}}
AU - P. Lane
SN - 978-84-09-24232-0/2340-1095
DO - 10.21125/iceri.2020.1114
PY - 2020
Y1 - 9-10 November, 2020
CI - Online Conference
JO - 13th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
JA - ICERI2020 Proceedings
SP - 5123
EP - 5123
ER -
P. Lane (2020) PROTOTYPING, ICERI2020 Proceedings, p. 5123.