University of Natural Science and Humanities (POLAND)
About this paper:
Appears in: EDULEARN12 Proceedings
Publication year: 2012
Pages: 3888-3900
ISBN: 978-84-695-3491-5
ISSN: 2340-1117
Conference name: 4th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies
Dates: 2-4 July, 2012
Location: Barcelona, Spain
An essential element of the teaching system that is decisive when it comes to its value is the set of educational methods. The prominent place amongst those methods is occupied with methods developing creative activity because the main element deciding of maximizing the child’s developmental chances is its creative activity.
In nursery schools there is that unconstrained child’s creation expressed with artistic or music activities and exercises or doing some DIY. The main goal there is to train imagination, thinking, expressing experiences and emotions and derivatively, somehow additionally, it is to train the efficiency of hands, gestures or eyes. While using methods that release the creative activity children are totally free to choose the topic, material and technique. They feel free to play with colours without paying any special attention to forms. They use the ability of gesticulation and facial expression in order to show their thoughts and feelings while playing a variety of creative and imitative games. They also dance freely while hearing records or get into the rhythm of a song that is being sung. They are able to compose and express the rhythm using simple musical instruments. That kind of classes let the children release all of their creative power and give them a chance of affirmation of what is ‘me’. It also enables the expression of sensations, emotions and knowledge gained through their own and group experiences. Thus, while working with children there should be used those methods that are connected with the child’s free and spontaneous actions that can release their creative activity.
In the article there are presented the following methods that actively develop the nursery school pupil’s creativity: the project method, constructing board games, Celestyn Freinet’s techniques, Maria Montessori’s method, Carl Orff’s method of physical expression through actions, Alfred and Maria Kniess’ method of rhythmical gymnastics, Weronika Sherborne Developmental Movement, Josef Gottfrid Thulin’s method of making stories through physical actions, Emil Jagues-Dalcroze’s method, Edwin E. Gordon’s method developing the love of music, Bati Strauss’ method of active listening to music, theatre, drama, music therapy, Maxwell Malz’s method of forming the positive image of oneself, the practise of creative visualization for children.
The methods listed above are the ways of working with children that rely on releasing their free creative expression that are in contrast with traditional teaching methods opposing to those methods that activate the educational process. They are educational and upbringing methods for children being at nursery school and they treat unconstrained activeness and creation.
The essence of classes on the basis of those methods is that children themselves carry out various ventures on the strength of earlier established assumptions. Children’s actions are guided the way to be able to find out some answers to the teacher’s questions and problems connected with the subject. The originality of those methods depends most of all on the fact that the teacher lets each of the children that have different experiences work according to his own rhythm. The teacher offers his help and encourages children to further creative efforts in harmony with their individual abilities.
Method, creativity, child, kindergarten.