1 National Institute of Technology (INDONESIA)
2 Coventry University (UNITED KINGDOM)
About this paper:
Appears in: ICERI2013 Proceedings
Publication year: 2013
Pages: 1457-1467
ISBN: 978-84-616-3847-5
ISSN: 2340-1095
Conference name: 6th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
Dates: 18-20 November, 2013
Location: Seville, Spain
This paper describes the introduction of reflective practice in undergraduate Graphic Design courses in Indonesia. The literature review and a comparative study of undergraduate teaching in a UK and Indonesian institution indicated that cultural issues, teaching methods and classroom management, influence student reflection.

The aim was to inform the development of teaching interventions to stimulate reflection in undergraduate graphic design courses in Indonesia and to introduce opportunities for reflection in other courses.

An action led research method was used, during which a term-long intervention was made in three classes. The study involved 132 students and 9 tutors as the participants, 3 independent reviewers to assess student journals, 3 independent observers, and 1 teaching assistant as a participant observer. Students were randomly assigned to three classes (one control, and two classes receiving different intensities of intervention (e.g. sketching journals, small group work, one to one tutorials, open questioning) - all of which have been demonstrated to increase reflective practice in the UK. Each class undertook the same module in Visual Literacy and were required to fulfil the same briefs.

The data were collected using classroom observation, semi-structured interviews with the tutors, focus groups with the students, STERLinG’s questionnaire (Schaub-de Jong et al. 2011), a self-assessment questionnaire gathering opinions of the learning activities and the sketching journal; formative and summative assessment, pre and post testing. These methods enabled opinions of both tutors and students to be gained. This was triangulated against the marks the students received, direct observations in the classroom and the evidence of reflection exhibited in the sketchbooks.
The intervention demonstrated the difficulty of conducting, contained educational studies. For example, the high level of ecological validity was confounded by bleeding between classes, with the control class imitating the interventions; the success of the intervention relied on class tutors understanding and embracing reflection, with only limited training; and of basing marking schemes on ‘the student journey’ as reflected in the journals, not just the final product.

Wicked problems were found of a cultural nature. Whilst in the UK students are taught from primary school to reflect and engage with their tutors in open dialogues, there is no such tradition in Indonesia. Additionally, not only did the intervention require extra work from the students and staff – for which they received little direct reward- data gathering activities placed an extra imposition on the students. Although not culturally specific, many students follow a path which maximises their reward whilst requiring least effort.

The study concurs with the findings of Moon (1999), who argued that positive effects of reflection may not necessarily be seen in improved test grades. However the results from the STERLinG questionnaire and the qualitative data show that the students who received the moderate intervention and training in reflective practice were most satisfied with their levels of reflection, tutorage, and the classroom environment.
In conclusion, the teaching intervention revealed that it takes time to foster reflection and embed reflective practice in a course. This needs to be implemented as part of a wider scheme to develop student centred learning in Indonesia.
Reflective practice, wicked-problems, intervention.