A MATTER OF QUESTIONING : A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF REFLECTIVE PRACTICE IN GRAPHIC DESIGN COURSES IN THE UNITED KINGDOM AND INDONESIA
This paper describes the results of the first phase of a PhD study looking at reflective practice in undergraduate Graphic Design courses. The aim of the study is to investigate how reflective practice is used during the teaching and learning process and to introduce opportunities for reflection into Indonesian courses. It is hypothesized that both cultural issues, and learning and classroom management, influence student reflection. This is demonstrated through a comparative study of undergraduate teaching in two institutions, one in the UK and one in Indonesia.
In order to understand the range of teaching and learning experiences offered to graphic design students in the UK, and how this differs from the situation in Indonesia, a sample of lectures, seminars, tutorials, critiques, studio practice and visits were observed. These were augmented by semi-structured interviews with tutors at both universities to understand, in particular the value placed on reflection and its benefits in terms of student progression. A student perspective on reflection and its encouragement through different forms of teaching was gained through focus groups in Indonesia and the use of STERLinG’s questionnaire (Schaub-de Jong et al. 2011).
All the studies show that reflection is valued and supported in the UK by both students and teachers and is facilitated through self-assessment and peer reviews. Evidence from the focus groups and questionnaires shows that this contrasts to the situation in Indonesia, where reflection is not widely understood (by the tutors) or used in the classroom. In the next stage of the research the results will be used to inform the development of a teaching intervention to stimulate reflection as a teaching tool in undergraduate graphic design courses in Indonesia.