IMPACT OF ATTACHMENT FACTORS ON EMERGENCE OF DEPENDENCY
Constantin the Philosopher University in Nitra (SLOVAKIA)
The work focuses on the analysis of Slovak and foreign sources on addiction treatment and social reintegration in therapeutic communities. A goal of the research was to prove that the social education as a resocialization process is an indispensable part of treatment programs for drug addicts.
The paper describes partial results of research which was proceeded in 15 centers in Slovakia regarding the evaluation results of the process of resocialization in conditions of Slovak republic especially around family and social relationships. Based on the data collection through methods CMRS (De Leon, G. – Melnick, G., 1993) in the group of adult and youth respondents.
CMRS methodology is a five-point self - assessment Likert scale consisting of 18 items:
1. Circumstances 1 – external influences to enter or remain in treatment (items 1 - 3),
2. Circumstances 2 – internal influences to leave treatment (questions 4 – 6),
3. Motivation – internal recognition of the need to change (questions 7 – 11),
4. Readiness for treatment and suitability of the therapeutic community programme (items 12 – 18).
The second method used for data collection was EuropASI (Blacken, P. - Hendriks, V. - Pozzi, G. - Tempesta, E. - Hartgers, C. - Koeter, M. - Fahrner, E. M. - Gsellhofer, B. - Küfner, H. - Kokkevi, A. - Uchtenhagen, A., 1992), method designed for the group of adults. It focuses on the following life areas: general information, medical status, addiction status (drug/alcohol use), employment/support, family anamnesis/social relationships, legal status and psychological status and problems.
The research was carried out on sample of 138 adult respondents from 15 resocialization centers in Slovakia.
Results were analyzed by:
1. Graphical presentation of analyzed factors,
2. Frequency analysis and percental rate of categories.
Based on the data collection via CMRS in the adult and juvenile respondent group and EuropASI in the adult group, the abovementioned results concerning the family and social anamnesis in resocialization centres clients were descriptively processed. From the most significant pointers, we choose the following: 53,62% of respondents are happy with their current home situation. They live predominantly with their parent(s),38,4%, or autonomously or with a sexual partner, 15,94% and 15,21% respectively. This situation is dissatisfactory to 63,04% of respondents. 64,23% don´t live with anyone with alcohol problems and 74,45% with no one that takes drugs, but spend their free time mainly (45,59%) with friends who do have alcohol or drug problems or spend free time alone (19,12%). A close, long lasting relationship is mainly present with the respondents' mother, 64,49%, father, 53,69%, or sexual partner, 47,10%. The abovementioned persons are the ones with the most emotional damage inflicted (65, 94%).
Depending on research findings we found that family and social environment has a considerable influence on creation and development of drugs addiction. In this case the system of resocialization shall put partial emphasis on reinforce relations and social competences of drug dependence clients.
Social education in the therapeutic community is an important way of social intervention which will take place from strategies and educational content to promote the social welfare and improve the quality of people in general and especially problem solving of those marginalized groups remained outside the system.