About this paper

Appears in:
Pages: 3489-3494
Publication year: 2017
ISBN: 978-84-617-8491-2
ISSN: 2340-1079
doi: 10.21125/inted.2017.0870

Conference name: 11th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
Dates: 6-8 March, 2017
Location: Valencia, Spain

REVISITING TITLE IX AND ITS IMPACT ON THE EDUCATION OF GIRLS AND WOMEN

L. Jones

University of Houston - Clear Lake (UNITED STATES)
There have been many significant and historical pieces of legislation that resulted from the enactment of the Civil Rights Act. One that has had a significant impact on the education of females is Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. It has been more than forty years since Title IX became law. Title IX prohibits the discrimination of girls and women in educational programs that receive federal grant money.

Specifically, “the law prevents gender discrimination in:
(1) the admission of students, particularly to postsecondary and vocational education institutions,
(2) the treatment of students, and
(3) the employment of all personnel” (Gollnick & Chinn, 2017, p. 101).

The law clearly addresses discrimination of any differences or stereotypical treatment of students based on gender. While many believe that the law mostly impacts equal access to athletics, it is far more reaching than sports activities. “Among other things, Title IX requires safe and accessible learning environments for both sexes, guarantees pregnant and parenting students equal educational opportunities, and requires that course offerings and career counseling not be limited by gender” (Kilman, 2012, p. 30).

Today, girls are offered more educational opportunities than in the past. Furthermore, women have made significant strides in attaining college degrees. The U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (2015) reports that in 2014, the percentage of females completing a bachelor’s degree or higher was 6 points greater than the percentage of males completing the same degrees. However, the increase in educational opportunities and a significant percentage of women attaining college degrees minimally begins to address gender inequities. While Title IX has been a major player in the advancement of women in a myriad of sports and career fields, gender inequities still exist in many other areas. Thus, much more work is still required.

Since the passage of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, gender equity remains a focal point in educational programs of schools. This virtual conference paper presentation will briefly explore the historical beginnings of Title IX and how it has impacted four general areas of education: 1) female participation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields, 2) women in higher education, 3) pregnant and parenting students, and 4) sexual harassment. This paper presentation will conclude by offering general recommendations for continued progress in addressing gender inequities. There have been advancements of girls and women in education and other areas over the last 40-plus years because of Title IX. Thus, it is incumbent upon everyone to continue to work diligently to maintain this momentum. Educators and stakeholders must address those negative issues that result from policies and procedures that impact us all.

References:
[1] Gollnick, D., & Chinn, P. (2017). Multicultural education in a pluralistic society (10th ed.). Boston: Pearson.
[2] Kilman, C. (2012, Fall). Title IX at 40: Beyond the playing field. Teaching Tolerance, 42, 29 – 33.
[3] U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2015). Fast Facts: Title IX. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=93
@InProceedings{JONES2017REV,
author = {Jones, L.},
title = {REVISITING TITLE IX AND ITS IMPACT ON THE EDUCATION OF GIRLS AND WOMEN},
series = {11th International Technology, Education and Development Conference},
booktitle = {INTED2017 Proceedings},
isbn = {978-84-617-8491-2},
issn = {2340-1079},
doi = {10.21125/inted.2017.0870},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.21125/inted.2017.0870},
publisher = {IATED},
location = {Valencia, Spain},
month = {6-8 March, 2017},
year = {2017},
pages = {3489-3494}}
TY - CONF
AU - L. Jones
TI - REVISITING TITLE IX AND ITS IMPACT ON THE EDUCATION OF GIRLS AND WOMEN
SN - 978-84-617-8491-2/2340-1079
DO - 10.21125/inted.2017.0870
PY - 2017
Y1 - 6-8 March, 2017
CI - Valencia, Spain
JO - 11th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
JA - INTED2017 Proceedings
SP - 3489
EP - 3494
ER -
L. Jones (2017) REVISITING TITLE IX AND ITS IMPACT ON THE EDUCATION OF GIRLS AND WOMEN, INTED2017 Proceedings, pp. 3489-3494.
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