THE E.S.C.L.O.S.A PROGRAM: THE MECHANISM OF INTEGRATION AND HELP FOR FRESHMEN IN THE NEW UNIVERSITY SYSTEMS OF THE EHEA
The process of implementation of the European Higher Education in the Spanish University, carries an educational paradigm, focuses on getting students to be the protagonists of their own learning, enabling them to acquire lifelong learning skills.
According to this new paradigm, learning is conceived as a process of constructing meaning, in which the student builds up their own knowledge by taking a much more active, autonomous, self-regulating role, while being aware of his own cognitive processes (Arco y Fernández, 2011; Lara y Rivas, 2009; López-Aguado, 2010). Besides having a scientific and technical competence, the students are required to acquire others such as the acquisition of attitudes, values, skills, etc. Currently, university freshmen, in general, tend to have significant gaps in their knowledge (Armengol y Castro, 2004), especially on basic issues such as understanding texts in a critical way, arguing or taking notes. Also, a good number of college students have difficulty grasping the basic ideas of the text or its structure (Román, 2004); mainly since several studies have indicated reading comprehension difficulties of university freshmen (López-Justicia, Hernández, Fernández, Polo y Chacón, 2008; Caballero y García-Lago, 2010). Along with academic difficulties there are other problems associated with personal and / or vocational-professional factors of university students (Manzano, Martín, Sánchez, Rísquez y Suárez, 2012), mainly in university freshmen, which may affect their learning. Also the relationship of self-concept to the academic achievement of students has been investigated(Esnaola, Goñi y Maradiaga, 2008; González-Pienda et al., 2003; Peralta y Sánchez, 2006), positively linking it with their motivation to study and their health and welfare (Blanco, 2010).
Another relevant factor for learning at university is the acquirement of social skills (Pertegal-Felices, Castejón-Costa y Martínez, 2012) as a command of or a minimum competency in certain social skills, support cooperative learning methods; a work methodology that is being implemented in the University of the EHEA.
In view of this situation, it is necessary to train students on aspects related to different competencies, giving them a wide network of strategies to put into practice in their personal, educational, professional and social life. This E.S.C.L.O.S.A program of psychoeducational intervention is addressed specifically to the type of student who participates well and attends classes regularly. (Estilos Socioculturales, Comprensión Lectora y Ortografía, Habilidades Sociales y Autoconcepto)