About this paper

Appears in:
Pages: 3100-3105
Publication year: 2012
ISBN: 978-84-695-3491-5
ISSN: 2340-1117

Conference name: 4th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies
Dates: 2-4 July, 2012
Location: Barcelona, Spain


M. Hardy

Saint Xavier University (UNITED STATES)
In 1998, Bailey and Pownell (1998, p. 48) articulated a hierarchy of “basic technology-related needs that must be met before higher levels of technology integration can be achieved.” Therefore, structuring programs intended to enhance participants’ TPACK in a manner that is consistent with that model could make such programs more effective. Unfortunately, it seems that many teacher educators are unfamiliar with the model, which is based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and includes five categories of technology related needs: physiological needs, safety needs, belonging needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs.

The initial level in Bailey & Pownell’s technological needs hierarchy is that of physiological needs, which entails things such as access to technological resources, time to explore them, time to plan technology infused lessons and access to and time for technological training. However, such training must emphasize not only how to operate technological tools but how to teach with them as well. The next level of technological needs that must be met are safety related needs. In- and preservice teachers need to perceive their instructional environments as ones in which it is safe to teach and experiment with teaching via technology. Bailey & Pownell (1998) noted that overcoming technophobia is an essential component of safety needs. The third technological needs level of Bailey & Pownell’s (1998) model is that of belonging, and therein, it is asserted that in order to infuse technology into their pedagogy, in- and preservice teachers must perceive themselves as members of a community of educators striving to teach via technology. Such a sense of community can be fostered through participation in a teaching with technology support group through which teachers can share, read about or discuss ideas, successes and setbacks concerning technology-based instruction, but the typically needs to be provided over an extended period of time

Self-Esteem related needs comprise the fourth level of Bailey & Pownell’s (1998) hierarchy of technological needs. Such esteem refers to a sense of being competent to teach with technology and that sense can be built by designing and teaching technology-infused lessons. The fifth level of technological needs noted by Bailey & Pownell is that of Self-Actualization, which entails a sense of empowerment to independently explore and become a capable user of technology as well as to identify possible educational uses for the tool and to plan and effectively implement technology-based lessons. Like self-esteem needs, self-actualization needs can be built by doing the types of tasks noted in the description of the needs category itself.

There are a variety of ways to meet the technological needs Bailey & Pownell (1998) note in their hierarchical model, but unless all levels of those needs are met, in- and preservice teachers will not be empowered to independently explore technological resources and effectively infuse them into their pedagogy.

Bailey, G.D. & Pownell, D. (1998). Technology staff-development and support programs: Applying Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Learning & Leading With Technology, 26(3), 47-51, 64.
author = {Hardy, M.},
series = {4th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies},
booktitle = {EDULEARN12 Proceedings},
isbn = {978-84-695-3491-5},
issn = {2340-1117},
publisher = {IATED},
location = {Barcelona, Spain},
month = {2-4 July, 2012},
year = {2012},
pages = {3100-3105}}
AU - M. Hardy
SN - 978-84-695-3491-5/2340-1117
PY - 2012
Y1 - 2-4 July, 2012
CI - Barcelona, Spain
JO - 4th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies
JA - EDULEARN12 Proceedings
SP - 3100
EP - 3105
ER -
M. Hardy (2012) A FORGOTTEN MODEL FOR ENHANCING TEACHERS’ TPACK, EDULEARN12 Proceedings, pp. 3100-3105.