ACCOMMODATING ENGLISH, ISLAM, AND SECULAR VALUES IN PRE-SERVICE ENGLISH TEACHER EDUCATION CURRICULUM: CASE STUDIES IN ISLAMIC AND SECULAR PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES IN INDONESIA
This paper presents partial findings of a study on Second Language Teacher Education (SLTE) that explores the interplay between English, Islam, and secular values in Pre-service English Teacher Education (PETE) curriculum in Indonesian Islamic and secular public universities. It is a response to Nunan’s (2003) study, which revealed that the significance of teacher education has been ignored in the enactment of government’s policies of English Language Teaching in the Asia-Pacific region.
This study particularly seeks to explore the interplay of English, Islam, and secular values in the principles, content, and implementation of PETE curriculum in an Islamic and a secular public universities in Indonesia.
An exploration of PETE curriculum, as part of research in SLTE, needs to reflect the view that the curriculum “is an interdependent, situated set of educational processes and tools whose aim is teacher learning” (Graves, 2009, p. 115). This ‘interdependent’ and ‘situated’ nature of SLTE curriculum indicates that research in this area needs to draw on sociocultural perspectives to SLTE in which, not only linguistic aspects, but also educational, social, cultural, political, and institutional aspects affecting the curriculum are considered (Johnson, 2009). It is, therefore, important to consider the hybrid context of this study, in which SLTE, secularization and Islamization of education, and Indonesian education intersect to conceptualize PETE curriculum.
In order to generate in-depth and holistic findings, qualitative case study research design has been used in this study. Analysis of data in this study includes “organization, classification, categorization, a search for patterns, and synthesis” (Schloss & Smith, 1999, p. 190). The analysis has been recursive and reflective in its nature so as to facilitate the construction of findings as subsequent pieces of data are reviewed.
Analysis of data collected from pre-service teachers, teacher educators, and program administrators through interviews, questionnaires, classroom observations, and document analysis shows that the intended integrated PETE curricula in both universities have not been founded on the necessary preconditions to achieve the curricular goals. These include improved and transparent pre-service teachers recruitment system, availability of all basic facilities for teaching and learning, teacher educators’ ability to translate social and institutional identities into teaching and learning process, and shared knowledge/awareness by all relevant programme stakeholders about PETE in Indonesian context. This study’s finding promises to generate invaluable insights for evaluation and innovation of curriculum for sustainable 21st century Pre-service English Teacher Education in Indonesia or in other similar contexts.