A. Guney

Delft University of Technology (NETHERLANDS)
A good concentration with motivation can surprise us, pleasantly. Many people, if not all, might have noticed by themselves how nice it is being busy with something while learning it. In another less pleasant situation one may have difficulty in learning it even if he/she has a lot of desire to do it. Knowing what is happening while learning could help us to solve this disappointing case since if we define a problem well enough we are half way in solving it. Motivation, thus, is not enough to learn, although it is one of the major variables among learning conditions. Some learners may have also another obstacle like being stuck between irrelevant trivial details; can any method help them to be saved from those kinds of traps? Could they possibly learn how to deal with it by being trained? Is it thinkable to free students from fear of failures? Are there some methods and techniques for it? Is it conceivable to think to make students exploit their abilities and capabilities so that they can get to know their own abilities and gain self-insurance? Assuming we solve all psychological problems of learners; would it be possible for them to learn at their best? I think there is a lot more to do; like exploring the cognitive process and both internal/ external conditions of learning.

I will make an attempt, in this paper, to expose the cognitive structure of learning so that the probable requirements for gaining knowledge can be exhibited. What are the characteristics of learning? What is learning? Do we have knowledge of it when learn something? Is learning gained knowledge? What could possibly be the prerequisite learning conditions? Could some appropriate methods help us in learning process? There can be found some answers and fruitful solutions to these questions -if not absolute- by treating the entire issue of learning with its basic relevant factors.

Teaching can be understood as trying to make learners learn. This is, then, a way of learning as by being taught. We can, thus, also develop some teaching methods. There are two main roles concerning the matter within this paper; one is teaching and its methods, and the other is learning and its ways.

There are also diverse styles, modes, tools, models, etc, besides methods in these dialectic dynamic subjects; all interwoven with each other, and these will also be treated with their relations to each other. Naturally, the entire paper will include some cases on the domain of architectural and urban design education.

Nevertheless, presuming all of above mentioned issues are known to us, learning and teaching methods can vary in accordance with subject at hand which is to teach or to learn if it differs from the other ones, in the qualitative sense. We can not possibly use the same method(s) to teach or to learn history and design; they require different treatment because of their internal characteristics.

Finally, would not be wonderful if we could create some brilliant methods to develop learners’ intellectual skills and creativity by analyzing what they really are? Do mental leaps help? Is defamiliarization fruitful for freeing minds? I hope studying these mental activities will help us also to create some more useful learning and teaching methods.