F. Gullu1, R. Kuusik1, M. Laanpere2, O.F. Sozcu3

1Tallinn University of Technology (ESTONIA)
2Tallinn University (ESTONIA)
3Fatih University (TURKEY)
In this paper for the first time we studied and compared socio-cultural differences and its’ effect on e-learning at higher education in Estonia and Turkey using EES Model-2. Element of uppermost Instructional layer of the EES Model-2 of Turkish and Estonian e-learning system at higher education, socio-cultural factor, was compared and analyzed for the first time. Advantages and problematic aspects of components of socio-cultural factor in both countries were analysed.

Most important components of socio-cultural factor with higher influence on e-learning at higher education in Estonia are:
(1) language,
(2) education language,
(3) population age and
(4) customs and traditions.

(1) The language,
(2) religion,
(3) customs, traditions and ethical values and
(4) population age are components which play significant role in Turkey.

The component of language was estimated as the main in two countries. The religion, second important component in Turkey with high positive impact on e-learning at higher education, was presented in Estonia but with insignificant impact. Component age is significant in two countries, as well as customs and traditions. Merged with ethical values in Turkish case this component has higher influence on e-learning at higher education.