TOWARDS A PATTERN LANGUAGE FOR INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATIONS - WHAT CAN WE LEARN FROM OTHER DISCIPLINES?
Danube University Krems (AUSTRIA)
About this paper:
Conference name: 11th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
Dates: 6-8 March, 2017
Location: Valencia, Spain
Abstract:This paper contributes to Educational Technology Research as it shows basic patterns of Instructional Technologies Applications and explains a conceptual model of pattern writing for Instructional Technologies Applications. I illustrate the approach with regard to learning experiences based on the pattern writing method developed by Takashi Iba. The conceptual background are pattern languages which have been developed in the field of architecture in the 1970s. Patterns in the sense of Christopher Alexander’s pattern theory make it possible to capture tacit knowledge as patterns can codify intuitively understood knowledge (Schmidt & Stephenson, 1998, p. 500). In the late 1970s, Christopher Alexander and his research group developed an approach how to communicate architectural notions between laypersons and experts. They were looking a means of communications for the expression relationships and configurations. The solution they found was to describe a holistic situation, a pattern, in a three-part rule, which contains (a) a context, (2) a problem and (2) a solution. Therefore, the pattern can be described as a solution to a problem in a context (Corfman, 1998, p. 21). Patterns and pattern languages can help to gain awareness, document and communicate skills and competences to others without losing the individual’s context. The pattern approach can contribute to identifying prior learning, as patterns and learning from prior experiences have some common characteristics: They are both rooted in practice, context-bound and include tacit aspects. Patterns are based on collective or individual experience and they influence and determine our behaviour and our life. Alexander is the first to make an attempt of understanding patterns – or rather for making them explicit and actively usable (Leitner, 2015, p. 16). Originally coming from architecture, the pattern approach has spread over various disciplines. Patterns derive from real world solutions, which were used over and over again (Kohls & Uttecht, 2009, p. 1042). This pattern language has been further developed as pattern language 2.0 in the following decades mainly in the field of information system and software engineering. During the last decade the pattern language 3.0 has been introduced by Iba et al. and is now discussed with regard to human behaviour but also learning processes (Baumgartner et al., 2016). With regard to Instructional Technologies Applications several aspects are of interests: didactical settings, user experience questions but also requirements engineering within classroom settings. I focus on the didactical settings and discuss the design of multimedia learning environments with regard to pattern languages. As a results 9 patterns are presented in the paper for the implementation of Instructional Technologies Applications in classroom settings.
These patterns are used in educational settings (e.g. language courses, mathematics, informatics) and it is explained how the patterns enhance the learning experience of students.
Keywords: Instructional Technologies, Pattern Language, Didactical Design.