R.A. Gómez Ortíz, A.I. Alcántara Gúzman, E.V. Pichardo Gil

Escuela Superior de Comercio y Administración, Unidad Santo Tomás del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (MEXICO)
The aim was to identify differences and similarities in management actions for the integration of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in basic and high school educational institutions, in Argentina, Peru and Uruguay.

Management experiences were analysed using a comparative method named benchmarking which gives a wide view about similar situations and scenes making easier the comparison. One of the situations highlights because it reports an important progress in the strategy performance.
Each country have implemented a program designed according to its needs. The three countries have a different situations about coverage and access to ICT (Vacchieri, 2013). All of them worked with OLPC (One Laptop per Child) model. It has the purpose to give a Laptop to each student and in some cases it included Laptops to teachers and managers. Each country managed the program in a different way but all of them have similar aspects like small scale work, communication and diffusion, training, monitoring and evaluation.

The small-scale work represents the initial part of the instrumented programs, because they were the starting points for the integration of ICT. They documented experiences that took place inside specific region or schools. That made easier to know their experiences, successes and obstacles that occurred during the implementation of these technologies.

Communication and dissemination corresponds to the activities undertaken to disseminate programs integrating ICT and the first results obtained. Where socializing experiences was essential to identify the strengths and areas of opportunity for the programs implemented, because they provide starting points for regions or institutions that are in the early stages.

Training is geared to both the teaching staff and the management, where knowledge and use of technology is not just about operating domain, also corresponds to their integration into work activities. Monitoring and evaluation strategies were implemented to improve and consolidate integration of ICT into education. First evaluations reflects important progress in training, connectivity and equipment.

These aspects represent an overview of the management processes that each country conducted for the integration of ICT in the education sector, of which the comparison was made.

Among the results obtained is the case of Argentina which reported significant progress although also presented significant difficulties, last ones represents opportunities to modify and improve its strategies. In the other hand Peru and Uruguay had modest progress which means they need to implement some strategies to improve integration of ICT.

Some conclusions are: there is a high complexity in all countries to implement ICT in schools, including making diagnoses from the national level, the creation of teams responsible for the integration and operation of technologies and activities to monitor and evaluate performance to strengthen the program