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Appears in:
Pages: 5849-5857
Publication year: 2016
ISBN: 978-84-617-5895-1
ISSN: 2340-1095
doi: 10.21125/iceri.2016.0319

Conference name: 9th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
Dates: 14-16 November, 2016
Location: Seville, Spain

TOWARD PERVASIVE LEARNING THROUGH PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH. CASE OF STUDY: MOSHTAGH INDEPENDENT SCHOOL/IRAN

F. Gharari1, S. Zand-e-razavi2, H. Talebian3

1Ayandeban (IRAN)
2Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman (IRAN)
3Research Institute Culture,Art and communications (IRAN)
In the sociological approach, school is a social domain which can be identified based on unequal power relations where school boss and moderators represent the educational system or the governmental educational objectives and ideology. Teachers stand at the next level of power and at the lowest level in power hierarchy stand students. This model of heterogeneous power distribution has some consequences both for educational system and students. Powerless students react to such a system in different ways most of which can be recognized as educational inefficiencies such as dropouts, school failure, bullying, violent behavior or refusal of doing assignments.

Considering the underlying epistemology and capacities of Participatory Action Research (PAR) in empowering stakeholders and equipping them with critical thinking, the main objective of this project was to offer and implement this method as a new educational approach. For this mean Freire definition of "PAR" was applied both as method and conducting framework.

A global basis for sustaining children right to have access to and benefit from equal education as well as effective presence of children in school is children right convention particularly the 12th article so it has been considered as the basis for sustaining children right in this project. Alongside, some other theoretical frameworks like Maynard (2008), Ozer (2008) and Fahmi(2004) used to evolve a more complete and indigenous model. Maynard outlines three main factors influencing the quality of student’s presence in schools and defines them as below;
(A) Hearing the voice: communication between students through conversation to recognize themselves as a group with common interests,
(B) Empowering: providing students with knowledge and skills for decision making,
(C) Participation: practicing their decision and power in a cooperative way,
Four more states can be defined by combining these factors namely: (D) hearing and participating, (E) hearing and empowering, (F) participating and empowering and (G) hearing, participating and empowering. "PAR" can be compared to (G).

This paper is reporting the practical implementation of this approach-method during 2011-2012 in "Moshtagh Independent School" which is an informal school in Kerman/Iran. Moshtagh is an independent school because it is not under supervision of ministry of education however it still has to stand in the governmental and security framework of Islamic Republic of Iran. Three facilitators conducted participatory projects as parts of curriculum or extra activities then products of students have been assessed in form of content analysis of assignment or focus groups to evaluate the outcomes.

Results show to provide the conditions of effective involvement of students in school social sphere the participatory action research is practicable and has proved to fulfill the criteria of combinations of D,E,F and G. However conflicts were inevitable and led to dissatisfaction and disappointment in some points of project. In order to utilize this approach in the most optimal way as well as maintaining persistence and continuity, it is necessary to empower teachers in the same time so of that teachers can also have their voice and the equilibrium of power can be sustained through enhancement of relation and structures and satisfactory outcomes for all the stockholders.
@InProceedings{GHARARI2016TOW,
author = {Gharari, F. and Zand-e-razavi, S. and Talebian, H.},
title = {TOWARD PERVASIVE LEARNING THROUGH PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH. CASE OF STUDY: MOSHTAGH INDEPENDENT SCHOOL/IRAN},
series = {9th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation},
booktitle = {ICERI2016 Proceedings},
isbn = {978-84-617-5895-1},
issn = {2340-1095},
doi = {10.21125/iceri.2016.0319},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.21125/iceri.2016.0319},
publisher = {IATED},
location = {Seville, Spain},
month = {14-16 November, 2016},
year = {2016},
pages = {5849-5857}}
TY - CONF
AU - F. Gharari AU - S. Zand-e-razavi AU - H. Talebian
TI - TOWARD PERVASIVE LEARNING THROUGH PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH. CASE OF STUDY: MOSHTAGH INDEPENDENT SCHOOL/IRAN
SN - 978-84-617-5895-1/2340-1095
DO - 10.21125/iceri.2016.0319
PY - 2016
Y1 - 14-16 November, 2016
CI - Seville, Spain
JO - 9th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
JA - ICERI2016 Proceedings
SP - 5849
EP - 5857
ER -
F. Gharari, S. Zand-e-razavi, H. Talebian (2016) TOWARD PERVASIVE LEARNING THROUGH PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH. CASE OF STUDY: MOSHTAGH INDEPENDENT SCHOOL/IRAN, ICERI2016 Proceedings, pp. 5849-5857.
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