HOW DO UNDERGRADUATE TEACHERS PROMOTE ICT INNOVATION: A CASE STUDY IN CHILEAN PRIMARY TEACHING PROGRAM
There is actually a gap between ICT expectations and opportunities in teaching training processes, and what is actually observed in classroom practices (Savage & McGoun, 2012; Zhao & Frank, 2003). As explanatory arguments, stands the existence of first-order or extrinsic barriers, such as the infrastructure available in schools; And second-order or intrinsic barriers, the people's willingness to use such technologies (Ertmer, Ottebreit-Leftwich & Tondeur, 2015, Rienties, Brouwer & Lygo-Baker, 2013, Drotner, 2008, Jimoyiannis & Komis, 2007).
Incorporating ICT into classroom activities is an example of innovative tension. On one hand, they are part of a narrative that highlights their incorporation in order to develop higher order skills for social interaction (Kozma, 2005, UNESCO, 2003) such as leadership, creativity, innovation, critical thinking, problem solving, communication and collaboration (Dwyer, Hogan, & Stewart, 2014; Saavedra & Opfer, 2012; Voogt & Roblin, 2012). On the other hand, they are related to a new knowledge that teachers must develop, and that is summarized in the different skills and technological standards already proposed (MINEDUC, 2012; ISTE, 2008, UNESCO, 2008; MINEDUC, 2006); Although, its impacts as educational innovation are still scarce and occasional (Martínez & Correa, 2009).
In initial teaching training programs, this issue becomes even more important, as a result of the asymmetrical relationship among the diversity of ICT´S social uses, their widespread presence in the school system and the low impact when becoming a teacher. Evidence shows that these students make less use of ICT during this stage (OECD, 2009) or have less innovative experiences (CET-CEPPE, 2010).
In order to find new answers to this problem, this research focusses on the way in which digital technologies are used in the final primary teaching practicum. This analysis makes possible to characterize the ways in which ICTs are incorporated regarding innovation, both in its pedagogical aspects for teachers and students interactions; as well as in technological perspectives concerning learning tools.
Methodologically, we used a multiple case research design in instrumental modality and interpretative elaboration, with a systematic follow-up of the practices carried out by 8 pre teachers throughout a learning unit; For this purpose the lessons were recorded using audios of the teacher's speech and non-participant observation records. The evidence was systematized and analyzed due to elaborated dense descriptions of the classes, based on the relation between speech-observation.
The results show, on one side, that activities with ICT promoted by teachers in pre service programmes contribute to the development of cognitive levels concerning remembering, understanding and applying. On the other, the abilities developed by the students when using them are related with reminding, identifying, searching, presenting or Representing information. Finally, a new aspect came out related to different ict uses which clearly go quite beyong the pre service teachers’ own expectations.