About this paper

Appears in:
Page: 7835 (abstract only)
Publication year: 2016
ISBN: 978-84-608-8860-4
ISSN: 2340-1117
doi: 10.21125/edulearn.2016.0718

Conference name: 8th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies
Dates: 4-6 July, 2016
Location: Barcelona, Spain

THE EFFECTS OF SCAFFOLDING PROGRAMS ON META-COGNITIVE SKILLS WITHIN COMPUTERIZED SCIENCE PROBLEM SOLVING

Z. Fund

Bar Ilan University (ISRAEL)
The current paper examines the effects of cognitive and meta-cognitive support (scaffolding) on meta-cognitive skills while problem solving in a computerized environment.

Four scaffolding components were identified: a) structure, b) reflection, c) subject-matter, d) enrichment; and used in different configurations to construct four scaffolding programs based on human teaching.

These programs ranged from low (Enrichment, only d) to partial (Strategic, a+b+d; Operative, a+c+d) and full support (Integrated, a+b+c+d). The scaffolding programs were implemented by appropriate worksheets. The effects of these scaffolding programs on the meta-cognitive skills of the students, for three academic levels, were compared to one another and to a non-scaffolded control group.

The research was carried out with 187 junior high school students (seventh grade) from among 12 classes. The scaffolded groups were assigned one of the scaffolding programs. All groups used the same textbook and worked within the same computerized learning environment. A “mathematics and reading comprehension” questionnaire was used to divide the participants into academic levels. No significant differences in average academic level existed between any of the sample conditions. The treatments were conducted once in every two weeks for a period of approximately 6 months, as part of the regular class program. The students were interviewed at the end of the study, and their problem solving activities in the computerized learning environment were observed and transcribed.

The resulted protocols served to analyze three meta-cognitive skills (categories) (and eight cognitive skills not presented here): self-assessing problem solving process; assessing final answer; finding the error and its causes for incorrect solution (CAT1, CAT2 and CAT3, respectively). Each category was further sub-divided into detailed sub-skills, which were assigned effectiveness scores, based on external judgment, reliability and content validity processes. Each student was assigned for each category a “most effective” (maximal) category score (the student’s most effective sub-category performed at least once, over all the observed solutions).

The maximal category scores were evaluated for the 187 participants for each category, and were subjected to a 5x3 (groups by academic levels) ANOVA analysis. Results showed highly significant differences between the groups in the three meta-cognitive categories, with the Integrated and Strategic groups having much more effective meta-cognitive skills.

Furthermore, CAT1 was found to depend on the scaffolding treatment only, but not on the academic level. CAT3 depends on both treatment and academic level; CAT2 shows an interaction of treatment and academic level. These results might be explained in terms of the complexity of the skill itself and as a function of internalization of the induced reflective processes. Further contrast analyses, indicated a strong effect of the "structure + reflection" combination on CAT1 and CAT2, and the weak or even negative effect of subject-matter on CAT3. These effects are further explained and elaborated upon in the paper.

The practical conclusion from these results is that Strategic scaffolding, comprising cognitive and meta-cognitive support--which is remarkably easy to prepare--is likely to benefit meta-cognitive skills within computerized problem-solving environments.
@InProceedings{FUND2016EFF,
author = {Fund, Z.},
title = {THE EFFECTS OF SCAFFOLDING PROGRAMS ON META-COGNITIVE SKILLS WITHIN COMPUTERIZED SCIENCE PROBLEM SOLVING},
series = {8th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies},
booktitle = {EDULEARN16 Proceedings},
isbn = {978-84-608-8860-4},
issn = {2340-1117},
doi = {10.21125/edulearn.2016.0718},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.21125/edulearn.2016.0718},
publisher = {IATED},
location = {Barcelona, Spain},
month = {4-6 July, 2016},
year = {2016},
pages = {7835}}
TY - CONF
AU - Z. Fund
TI - THE EFFECTS OF SCAFFOLDING PROGRAMS ON META-COGNITIVE SKILLS WITHIN COMPUTERIZED SCIENCE PROBLEM SOLVING
SN - 978-84-608-8860-4/2340-1117
DO - 10.21125/edulearn.2016.0718
PY - 2016
Y1 - 4-6 July, 2016
CI - Barcelona, Spain
JO - 8th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies
JA - EDULEARN16 Proceedings
SP - 7835
EP - 7835
ER -
Z. Fund (2016) THE EFFECTS OF SCAFFOLDING PROGRAMS ON META-COGNITIVE SKILLS WITHIN COMPUTERIZED SCIENCE PROBLEM SOLVING, EDULEARN16 Proceedings, p. 7835.
User:
Pass: