INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION: IDENTIFYING LITERATURE FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
Organizations are increasingly looking for employees possessing the requisite knowledge, skills, and abilities for competence in management, leadership, and teamwork (Chen, Donahue & Klimoski, 2004; Yukl, 1998). Moreover, given that many organizations work with a multicultural workforce either located at home or else in multiple facilities around the world, it is crucial that we consider the impact of culture on management (Gibson, 1999). Indeed, the increasing demand for managing a multicultural workforce has been confirmed (Avery & Thomas, 2004; Earley & Ang, 2003; Earley & Peterson, 2004; Joshi & Lazarova, 2005; Kealey, Protheroe, MacDonald & Vulpe, 2003; 2006). In short, multicultural managerial competence is now a requirement not only for international managers on foreign assignments, but also for those managing a local workforce or connecting with employees via the help of information technology within virtual teams (Fortier, 2009; Joshi & Lazarova, 2005; McCall & Hollenbeck, 2002; Thomas & Inkson, 2005). However, when developing a university curriculum in international management, we find little guidance for creating programs that are comprehensive of all current management requirements (Wankel & DeFillippi, 2004). This article offers a review of literature dealing with international management skills and multicultural competence. Our goal is to clarify potential course content by offering educators a comprehensive array of available research to inform the development of a program in international management. Our typology illustrates the four international management contexts and corresponding manager profiles. Accordingly, we cover literature that spans four key international management contexts, namely 1) multicultural management at home, 2) management for international and expatriate managers, 3) domestic team management, and 4) distance team management via the use of new technology. Ultimately, we show that there is a great deal of current research that can help educators prepare students to successfully meet the challenges found in a globalized world.