BEHAVIORS TOWARDS CONTRACEPTION IN A SAMPLE OF PORTUGUESE ADOLESCENTS
Polytechnic Institute of Viseu (PORTUGAL)
About this paper:
Appears in: INTED2012 Proceedings
Publication year: 2012
Conference name: 6th International Technology, Education and Development Conference
Dates: 5-7 March, 2012
Location: Valencia, Spain
The association that is established between adolescence and sexuality may prove controversial, generating doubts, fears and myths. What can cause distortions of all their perception, and easily become a source of anguish and suffering.
One of the goals to be achieved by implementing programs of health education in schools is the declining rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancy. Recent literature indicates as the main obstacles to take assertive attitudes in this context, the knowledge deficit, attitudes toward contraceptive use, low knowledge of self and little responsibility and autonomy.
Identify the attitudes of adolescents towards condoms and pill by age and sex. Knowing the sexual behavior of adolescents.
Cross-sectional study, with 311 adolescents, (67,5% males) with a average age=17,01 years (±1,51), attending a school in Portugal. A questionnaire was applied to characterize the sample and two Liker ordinal scales to assess attitudes towards condom use and pill (Ramos 1999), that evaluate 2 factors: functionality and guilt .
For the whole sample 40.4% had never had sexual experience, especially girls (62.6%) versus boys (37.4%) with statistically significant differences (X2 = 31,276, p = 0.000 ), standing this differences in girls.
In the total sample 32.0% had sex with more than one person, 69.6% men and 30.1% girls, with differences statistically significant differences (X2 = 16,942, p = 0.000), located in males.
Among the adolescents: 20.6% agreed that condoms are "cheap," 23.4% "worry that can be found at home," 22.9% "are embarrassed to buy them" and 21.9% "feel uncomfortable and guilty to walk with condoms. "
The boys believe that condoms "breaks with romanticism," the relationship "is no longer natural" condoms "reduces sexual pleasure," and recognize "an erotic game" in its placement.
Among adolescents, 24.0% consider the pill as embarrassing, awkward, and complicated to buy, and 29.2% think that its use "permits sex with multiple people without risk", 39.9% consider that its use "prevent sexually transmitted diseases," 41.4% believe that should be used "only in sexual relations moment" 50% say "pill prevents AIDS.“To summarize: 40.4% of teenagers have inadequate knowledge attitudes and beliefs towards pill and 47.9% are in relation with condom.
The Student t test revealed higher mean values in boys than in girls only in factor 1 (functionality)and factor 2 (guilt) being differences only significant in factor 2;
Relationship between knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards condom use and age
The Kruskal Wallis test revealed that younger adolescents have higher knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about condoms in the two factors and the overall indexM;
The results indicate a need for formative intervention deliberate, by sex and age, with a view to improved attitudes towards the pill and condoms and hence the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. The prevalence of certain attitudes coincide with how young people face their health and how they behave. The school should foster in young people the acquisition of positive attitudes to their harmonious and healthy development in every level.
The access to quality information and accessibility to family planning counseling are crucial for young people to have positive and determinants behaviors in changing attitudes in prevention of adolescent sexual health.
Keywords: Adolescents, sex education, contraception.