FEATURES OF PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT OF ADOLESCENTS: A PSYCHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECT
The aim of the present research is to describe the individual typological features of modern adolescents through the description of the types of interhemispheric asymmetry and the types of psychological defenses, as well as the identification of the related phenomena. Empirically the research is based on the data obtained through the technique of «Life Style Index» (LSI) by R. Plutchik, adapted in Russia by Professor L.I. Wasserman (Wasserman L.I., 2002) and the samples to identify sensory-motor manual, foot, visual and auditory asymmetry (Dobrokhotova T.A., 2006; Nikolaeva E.I. & Borisenkova E.Y., 2008). 90 adolescents aged 13 to 15 took part in the experiment. The statistical analysis of the data was carried out with the help of SPSS.
The results of the research show a relatively little difference in the representation of the left-hemispheric type – 44.5% (40 people) and the mixed type – 33.3% (30 people) of functional asymmetry in this group of participants. It can be explained by the fact that, despite being apparently right-handed, an individual can be a latent left-hander, which is due to systematic re-training; or ambidexterity. Being almost equally adapted in the use of both hands, since the early age, such an adolescent is encouraged to follow the more common and socially more accepted stereotype of right-handed functional activity.
22.2% of the participants (20 people) proved right-hemispheric domination, accompanied by left-handedness. Regardless the type of functional interhemispheric asymmetry, all the examined adolescents revealed the predominance of projection and negation. A quarter of the examined adolescents are characterized by more mature defense mechanisms – compensation and rationalization. The obtained data reflect a typical contradiction of their development age: in general, 13-15-year-old adolescents are characterized by a high degree of immaturity. The relatively primitive kinds of psychological defenses dominate, but still some indications of their growing up can be seen, and the tendency for more conscious response patterns and behavior is evident.
The results of the research were applied to the calculation of Student's t-test. The results show that the features of psychological defense in adolescents reflect their specific thinking and perception of reality related to interhemispheric lateralization: left-hemisphere asymmetry makes it more likely for adolescents to use more mature mechanisms of defense; right-hemisphere asymmetry makes it more likely for adolescents to apply psychological defenses which are more perception distorting; for adolescents with a mixed type of interhemispheric asymmetry, the ability to use the potential of both hemispheres gives both advantages and disadvantages.
This knowledge is necessary for teachers and psychologists in the practice of teaching adolescents. With the results obtained, it is possible to create the conditions to help teenagers to develop their personality, considering their individual physiological characteristics.