T. Ejiri, Y. Morimoto, Y. Miyadera

Tokyo Gakugei University (JAPAN)
In elementary and secondary education, students and teachers now must accumulate learning records and achievements in the classroom (learning records) and use these records for learning assessment. Because, learning records are evidence of what was learned in the classroom.
Problem 1: It is not easy for learners to accumulate and use their own learning records inside and outside the classroom.
Problem 2: It does not seem easy for primary, junior high, and senior high school students introducing and using e-portfolio systems.
Problem 3: Worksheets are generally paper-based; thus, it is difficult to individualize learning records of worksheets since items are printed in advance.

(1) Solutions to problems
We suggest a framework to support learning in accumulating and using learning records in the classroom using electronic worksheets (e-worksheets) for solving Problems 1-3. Teachers create e-worksheets by using items that correspond to the learning records that they want learners to accumulate and use in the classroom.
(2) Creating e-worksheets
Accumulated learning records enable not only the use of e-worksheet items but also each e-portfolio. Teachers create e-worksheets by constructing items corresponding to the learning records that teachers want learners to accumulate and use in the classroom. Learners advance their learning with these e-worksheets. Inputted learning records enable the use of a general e-portfolio because learning records are managed by accumulating each item separately. Thus, accumulated learning records can be treated as an e-portfolio.
(3) Approach
E-worksheets can be treated as a processing system by using the groups of items that make up the e-worksheets. We use a method of formal description using formal language to formally describe e-worksheets. We extracted and divided the assumed items comprising e-worksheets into groups from actual worksheets and related studies and formalized items comprising e-worksheets with the extended BNF notation in counting the number of correspondence of items comprising e-worksheets.

Formalization of our model:
The following six-step procedure was used to formalize our model.
Step 1: Define a framework of learning records required for e-worksheets assigned for inside and outside the classroom. Concurrently, define the scope of the model.
Step 2: Extract items from actual worksheets.
Step 3: Classify the extracted items.
Step 4: Extract the relationships between items.
Step 5: Develop a model using formal language based on the results from Steps 1-4.
Step 6: Implement the model developed in Step 5 in an XML schema.

Development of an e-worksheet management system (EWMS) for accumulating and using learning records:
In this system, variations in e-worksheets enable the accumulation and use of learning records while guaranteeing soundness along with our developed model in the previous section. This system has three functions.
Function 1: Creating and editing e-worksheet
Function 2: Using e-worksheet
Function 3: Learning management

Evaluation of Usability for teachers:
We evaluated usability for teachers. It indicates higher usability than the current system.

We developed a model for creating e-worksheets by using construction items (an item-construction model of e-worksheets) and developed an EWMS for accumulating and using learning records based on this model. We evaluated the system. It indicates higher usability than the current system.